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politics clary test 2
Terms in this set (71)
Shadow of the Future
A metaphor indicating that decision-makers are conscious of the future when making decisions.
Conventions and treaties that under international law create legally binding obligations
Voluntarily adopted guidelines for corporate behavior derived from emerging norms and standards in international codes, declarations, and conventions.
an unofficial law
(Ex. Law of the Seas Treaty)
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.
Five permanent members( US, UK, France, China, USSR) with veto power in the UN. Promised to carry out UN decisions with their own forces.
Every formally recognized country has a vote
No formal enforcement power; can condemn or suggest action to security council;set standards/norms for behavior
Vote on new members, justices of ICJ, and Security General (based on recommendations from Security Council)
The staff of the UN, headed by the secretary-general
recommendations of social progress and development
recommendations of economic progress and development
model un reform
allow more countries to enter the P-5
Global Civil Society
set of institutions, organizations, and behaviors situated between the state, business world, and family, including voluntary and nonprofit organizations, philanthropic institutions, and social and political movements
Competition among states that involves adopting policies that each state would prefer to avoid. For example, states engage in this when they underbid one another on tax breaks to attract businesses relocating their facilities.
An organization that manufactures and markets products in many different countries and has multinational stock ownership and multinational management
a collective term for the defense and foreign relations of a country; protection of the interests of a country
A subfield of international relations (IR) that focuses on questions of war and peace.
the ability to force/coerce others to do what you want them to do (either use threat or force) - can only get away with it for so long (bullying)
the ability to encourage/entice others to do what you want them to do (without coercion)- change behavior in a positive manner- not perceived as a bully
- Sometimes if you pursue your national security through hard power you can ruin your potential for soft power in the future
Use of diplomatic, cultural, and political tools by authoritarian regimes not to persuade (as in soft power), but to manipulate, shape perceptions of itself, and divide a target population.
ability to strategically wield both soft and hard power together to achieve foreign policy objectives
seven most industrialized nations (USA, UK, FR, Ger., Italy, Japan, Canada)
Revolution in Military Affairs
the transformation of weapons, military organizations, and operational concepts for military force that leverages the information and communications revolutions of the latter twentieth and early twenty-first centuries
war between two or more groups within a single sate
use of armed force in conflict between two or more states
-war between states and a non-state actor
-war against Islamic State; perhaps a conflict involving the kurds
Conflict where one or more groups are significantly more powerful/capable than the other group.
- The 'weaker' group uses its knowledge of terrain and indirect tactics to exhaust and outlast the 'stronger' group
Also known as guerilla warfare or insurgencies
the use of peacekeeping troops by foreign states or international organizations to protect endangered people from gross violations of their human rights and from mass murder
purported ability of TV to raise a foreign tragedy to national prominence by broadcasting vivid pictures
Somalia Effect/Vietnam Syndrome
impact and immediate public awareness on war
war in which a country's information systems could be paralyzed from a massive attack by destructive software
the use of computer and networking technologies against persons or property to intimidate or coerce governments, individuals, or any segment of society to attain political, religious, or ideological goals
A computer worm designed to find and infect a particular piece of industrial hardware; used in an attack against Iranian nuclear plants
the spread of nuclear weapons
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
An international treaty, signed in 1968, that aims to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons.
who is not a member of nuclear non-proliferation treaty?
Mutually Assured Destruction
A doctrine of military strategy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender.
First Strike Capability
the ability to launch a nuclear attack capable of completely preventing a retaliatory strike
who has had nuclear weapons and given them up?
a nuclear strategy requiring only a second-strike capability that can be achieved with a relatively small nuclear stockpile
The process by which nations remove nuclear weapons from their arsenals.
a nuclear weapon in which enormous energy is released by nuclear fission (splitting the nuclei of a heavy element like uranium 235 or plutonium 239)
fusion reaction bomb
The combination of nuclear land-, sea-, and air-based retaliatory weapons.
International Atomic Energy Agency
Cooperates with partners worldwide to promote safe, secure and peaceful nuclear technologies.
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
A proposed treaty to prohibit all testing of nuclear weapons in all environments: underground, underwater, in the atmosphere and in space. In 1999, the U.S. Senate refused to ratify the treaty.
Nuclear Weapon Free Zones
Latin America and Africa
premeditated use of violence, coercion, force, or threats to create fear/ terror (a form of psychological warfare)
a military strategy in which small, often lightly armed units engage in hit-and-run attacks against military, government, and civilian targets
A radical Islamist militia in control of substantial parts of central Syria and Iraq, where it applies an extremist version of shari'a law.
terrorism that occurs within the borders of a single country and is associated with extremist groups
State directly involved in terror activities
State indirectly supports terror activities
state directed repression
Government-directed repression against its own citizens using its military power
Syrian Civil War
An ongoing armed conflict in Syria between forces loyal to the Syrian Ba'ath Party government and those seeking to oust it. The conflict began on 15 March 2011, with popular demonstrations that grew nationwide by April 2011. Protesters demanded the resignation of President Bashar al-Assad, whose family has held the presidency in Syria since 1971.
the ability to produce more of a given product using a given amount of resources
the ability to produce a good at a lower opportunity cost than another producer
an advantage over competitors gained by offering greater customer value, either by having lower prices or providing more benefits that justify higher prices
international trade left to its natural course without tariffs, quotas, or other restrictions.
A process that involves countries in reducing or removing trade barriers, such a tariffs and quotas, so goods and services can move around the world more freely
the use of government regulations to limit the import of goods and services
cons of free trade
1) domestic workers (particularly in manufacturing based jobs) can lose their jobs due to increased imports or productions shifts to low-wage global markets
2) workers may be forced to accept pay cust from employers, who can threaten to move their jobs to lower-cost global markets
3) moving operations overseas because of intense competitive pressure often means the loss of service jobs and growing numbers of white-collar jobs
4) domestic companies can lose their comparative advantage when competitors build advanced production operations in low-wage countries
pros of free trade
1) the global market contains over 6 billion potential customers for goods and services
2) productivity grows when countries produce goods and services in which they have a comparative advantage
3) global competition and less-costly imports keep prices down, so inflation does not curtail economic growth
4) free trade inspires innovation for new products and keeps firms competitively challenged
5) uninterrupted flow of capital gives countries access to foreign investments, which help keep interest rates low
A tax on imported goods
a sum of money granted by the government or a public body to assist an industry or business so that the price of a commodity or service may remain low or competitive.
limitations on the amount of specific products that may be imported from certain countries during a given time period
Bretton Woods System
A system in which all currencies were pegged at a fixed rate to the US dollar.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
a 1948 agreement that established an international forum for negotiating mutual reductions in trade restrictions
World Trade Organization
Administers the rules governing trade between its 144 members. Helps producers, importers, and exporters conduct their business and ensure that trade flows smoothly.
A specialized agency of the United Nations that makes loans to countries for economic development, trade promotion, and debt consolidation. Its formal name is the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
International Monetary Fund
a United Nations agency to promote trade by increasing the exchange stability of the major currencies
Alternative to international trade that emphasizes small businesses and worker owned and democratically run cooperatives and requires employers to pay workers fair wages, permit union organizing, and comply with minimum environmental and safety standards.
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