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Unit 8 Essential Terms
Terms in this set (20)
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
Cuban Missile Crisis
1962 crisis that arose between the United States and the Soviet Union over a Soviet attempt to deploy nuclear missiles in Cuba. Was the closest the world has ever come to nuclear war.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
An organization founded by MLK Jr., to direct the crusade against segregation. Its weapon was passive resistance that stressed nonviolence and love, and its tactic direct, though peaceful, confrontation.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
Involved in the American Civil Rights Movement formed by students whose purpose was coordinate a nonviolent attack on segregation and other forms of racism. SNCC for short.
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
(CORE) Civil rights organization started in 1944 and best known for its "freedom rides," bus journeys challenging racial segregation in the South in 1961.
Protests by black college students, 1960-1961, who took seats at "whites only" lunch counters and refused to leave until served; in 1960 over 50,000 participated in sit-ins across the South. Their success prompted the formation of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee.
1952; renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist impulsesto achieve true independence and equality.
A black political organization that was against peaceful protest and for violence if needed. The organization marked a shift in policy of the black movement, favoring militant ideals rather than peaceful protest.
Martin Luther King Junior
Preacher. Influenced by Ghandi. Led bus boycott, jailed and his house was firebombed. Led to desegregation in southern cities. March on Washington (famous speech) Lobbied for civil rights and voting rights. He was shot. Non-violent.
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
Unanimously held that the racial segregation of children in public schools violated the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment. Brown claimed that Topeka's racial segregation violated the Constitution's Equal Protection Clause because the city's black and white schools were not equal to each other and never could be. Overruled Plessy v. Ferguson's "separate but equal" doctrine and would eventually led to the desegregation of schools across the South.
A person who challenged racial laws in the American South in the 1960s, originally by refusing to abide by the laws designating that seating in buses be segregated by race. Rode to interstate business to see if they were abiding by integration laws.
Bay of Pigs Invasion
The failed invasion of Cuba in 1961. A force of 1,200 Cuban exiles, backed by the United States, landed at the Bay of Pigs. The invasion was a huge failure.
A slogan used to reflect solidarity and racial consciousness, used by Malcolm X. It meant that equality could not be given, but had to be seized by a powerful, organized Black community.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination; opposed racism & strove to gain civil rights for African Americans; got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional. Advocated for the civil rights of African Americans.
A United States law enacted on June 23, 1972 that states: "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance."
A fortified wall surrounding West Berlin, Germany, built in 1961 to prevent East German citizens from traveling to the West. Its demolition in 1989 symbolized the end of the Cold War. This wall was both a deterrent to individuals trying to escape and a symbol of repression to the free world.
Limited Test Ban
Prohibits nuclear weapons tests "or any other nuclear explosion" in the atmosphere, in outer space, and under water. Before this, much damage was caused by the previously listed test types.
A program added to the Social Security system in 1965 that provides hospitalization insurance for the elderly and permits older Americans to purchase inexpensive coverage for doctor fees and other health expenses.
A federal and state assistance program that pays for health care services for people who cannot afford them. This was part of Johnson's New Society agenda.
The campaign program advocated by JFK in the 1960 election. He promised to revitalize the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights.