1,180 terms

English for IT & Computing

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3D graphics
the field of computer graphics concerned with generating and displaying three-dimensional objects in a two-dimensional space
3D modeling
a process of developing a mathematical representation of any three-dimensional surface of object via specialized software
3D printing
a process of making a three-dimensional solid object of virtually any shape from a digital model
3D rendering
the 3D computer graphics process of automatically converting 3D wire frame models into 2D images with 3D photorealistic effects
3D scanner
a device that analyzes a real-world object or environment to collect data on its shape and appearance
3G (third-generation GSM)
the third generation of the Global System for Mobile communication standard. It is the standard for mobile users around the world
6to4
a tunneling mechanism used to transfer IPv6 packets over an IPv4 infrastructure
A/D converter (analog-to-digital converter, analog to digital converter, analogue to digital converter, analogue-to-digital converter)
an electronic circuit that changes analog signals to digital signals
abandonware
discontinued video or computer games, often collected and played by computer game enthusiasts on refurbished systems or on PCs running emulator software
absolute path
a path to a file that begins with the drive identifier and root directory or with a network share and ends with the complete file name
abstract type
a type without instances or without definition
accelerated graphics port (AGP)
high-speed point-to-point channel for attaching a video card to a computer's motherboard, primarily to assist in the acceleration of 3D computer graphics
Accelerated Processing Unit (APU)
the electronic processor that combines CPU and GPU elements into a single architecture
access
connect to, or get information from, a system or a database
access control
a feature of a computer security system which prevents unauthorized users from accessing a system
access key
a key combination, such as ALT + F, that moves the focus to a menu, a command or a control, without using the mouse
access point (AP)
a wireless network device that connects a wireless network to a wired network
access privileges (access rights)
the type of operations permitted a given user for a certain system resource on a network or a file server
access request
a user request for data from a database
account
a registration for a user of a network system, used for controlling access to the system
accumulator
a register that holds the results of operations performed by the arithmetic portion of the CPU
acoustic coupler
a modem which converts digital signals from a computer into audible sound signals and vice versa
active cell
the current cell where information is entered
active window
the window in a WIMP system that is currently being used, usually located on top of any other open windows
actuator
a mechanism that converts signal to mechanical movements
ad blocker
a software product that prevents advertisements from appearing with the content the user is intentionally viewing
ad hoc network
a type of peer to peer wireless network mode where wireless devices communicate with each other directly
adaptor board
a circuit board put in a spare slot in a computer to control an external device
address bus (bus)
the set of conductors that carry the memory addresses signals between different parts of a computer system
address prefix
text string of 0 to 152 bits, which is at the beginning of each address in the ATM network
address register
a register which stores an address in memory
address resolution protocol
a network layer protocol used to convert an IP address into a physical address
address
a location within the memory of a computer
ADSL (asymmetric digital subscriber line)
a form of DSL that has a different bandwidth for the upstream and the downstream
advanced audio distribution profile (A2DP)
a profile which defines the procedures for transmission of high-quality audio as mono or stereo via Bluetooth
adware
software devised to display advertisements; some includes spyware
agile software development (ASD)
set of principles for software development where requirements and solutions evolve through the collaborative effort of self-organizing cross-functional teams
AIO (All-in-One PC)
a computer that houses every component within the same case as the monitor, except for peripheral components like the keyboard and mouse
algorithm
a set of precise rules or instructions for solving a problem
algorithmic attack
a form of computer attack that targets a set of rules or calculations that a computer must folow to solve a problem
aliasing
distortion of a reproduced image so that curved or inclined lines appear inappropriately jagged, caused by the mapping of a number of points to the same pixel
alignment
when two or more things are positioned in a straight line or parallel to each other
all routes explorer (ARE)
a special frame sent by the source at all possible routing paths
alphanumeric keys
keys which represent letters and numbers, arranged as on a typewriter
alphanumeric
used to describe data that contains numbers and letters
ALT text caption
text displayed in a webpage as an alternative to a graphic when the facility for displaying graphics is not available or is switched off
ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)
a digital circuit performing integer arithmetic and logical operations
ambient occlusion
approximating how bright light should be shining on any specific part of a surface, based on the light and its environment
amplifier
electronic device that increases the power of a signal
analog (analogue)
describing a smoothly varying signal that has no discontinuities and can take any value between a maximum and a minimum
analogue-digital conversion (ADC)
electronic process in which a continuously variable (analog) signal is changed, into a multi-level (digital) signal
Android
a device designed to look and act like a human or an operating system based on the Linux kernel dedicated for mobile devices
animation
a rapid display of a sequence of images of 2-D or 3-D artwork or model positions to create an illusion of movement
anorak
a slang term for an eccentric socially inept person with little or no fashion sense and having an obsessive interest in a hobby or subject
aerial (antenna)
a device that enables signals to be detected and transmitted in air
antialiasing (anti-aliasing)
the technique of minimizing the distortion artifacts
anti-glare shield
a protective screen over the front of a computer screen to reduce the amount of reflected light
anti-static
preventing the buildup of static electricity
anti-virus (anti-virus program, anti-virus software)
a computer program or set of programs used to detect, identify and remove viruses from a computer system
Access Point Name (APN)
a configurable network identifier used by a mobile device when connecting to a GSM carrier
applet
a very small self-contained computer program
application launcher
a computer program that helps a user to locate and start other computer programs
application layer
the only part of a network communications process that a user sees
application port
a path available for a particular type of application data to enter or leave a network system
application service provider (ASP)
a company that makes applications programs available over the Internet usually charging a fee for access to programs
application-programming interface (API)
a set of programming instructions and standards for accessing a Web based software application or Web tool
applications programmer
a person who writes applications programs using a computer language
architecture
the general specification of a system
archive bit
a digital bit stored with a file indicating if the file has been backed up since it was last edited
areal density
the data capacity of a storage device measured in bits per square inch
ARPANET
one of the world's first operational packet switching networks, the first implementation of TCP/IP, and the progenitor of what was to become the global Internet
artificial intelligence (AI)
an area of computing concerned with developing computer programs that perform tasks that can normally only be done using human mind and reasoning
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
a code for representing 128 English characters as numbers, with each letter assigned a number from 0 to 127
assembler
a computer program that changes basic computer instructions into a language that the computer can understand and use to operate
assembly language
a low-level computer language that uses mnemonics rather than only numbers making it easier than machine code for humans to read and write
Assisted GPS (A-GPS, aGPS)
a system which can, under certain conditions, improve the startup performance, or time-to-first-fix (TTFF) of a GPS satellite-based positioning system
asymmetric
having a different signal bandwidth in each direction, i.e. the bandwidth for sending is different from the bandwidth for receiving
asynchronous transfer mode (ATM)
a method of transferring fixed size data packets across a network, suitable for transferring video, audio and computer data
asynchronous
not synchronised, i.e. occurring at irregular intervals
ATM (automatic teller machine, automatic transfer machine, cash dispenser, cashpoint)
the type of machine used by banks for enabling customers to withdraw money from their bank accounts
audio note
in multimedia, a digitized audio message that can be attached to text or graphics
audio
connected with sound and the recording and broadcasting of sound
authentication (authentification)
a process that checks the identity of a user or an object
auto numbering
a feature that automatically numbers diagrams, paragraphs, etc., in a document
auto-kerning
a word-processing feature that automatically adjusts the space between the characters of a typeface to give the best-looking fit
automate
use automatic equipment and machines to perform an activity previously done by people
automatic document feeder (ADF)
a feature used in copiers and scanners to feed pages into the machine without manually placing them
automaton
a machine capable of operating independently, such as a clothes drier
autonomous system (AS)
a group of networks under mutual administration that share the same routing methodology
autorun
a computer function which automatically executes a command when removable media or optical discs are inserted
avatar
a graphical icon that represents a real person in a cyberspace system
B2B (business to business)
describing or involving arrangements or trade between different businesses, rather than between businesses and the general public
B2C (business to consumer)
describing or involving the sale of goods or services to single customers for their own use, rather than to businesses
back up
to store a copy of data on a storage device to keep it safe
backbone
the main transmission path handling the major data traffic connecting different LANs together
backdoor
technique in which a system security mechanism is bypassed undetectably to access a computer or its data
backend
the server part of a client-server configuration that provides a service on a network at the request of a client
background
describing processing which does not involve computer-user interaction, using spare computer resources to perform low-priority tasks
backing storage
this means that data is held when the computer is switched off and can be loaded onto a computer system when required
backspace
the key that you press on a computer keyboard to remove the character to the left of the cursor or any selected text
backup
the process of storing a copy of data on a storage device to keep if safe; the term used for the copied data
bandwidth
the range of frequencies that can be transmitted over a communications channel
barcode reader (barcode scanner, bar code reader, bar code scanner)
a scanning device that can read barcodes as input
barcode
a sequence of vertical parallel lines used to give items a unique identification number
bash
a free Unix shell for the GNU Project; a command processor that typically runs in a text window, allowing the user to type commands that cause actions
batch mode (batch processing)
performing a particular operation automatically on a group of files all at once rather than manually opening, editing and saving one file at a time
batch file (batch program, batch programme, batch script)
a program that runs without any terminal or user interaction, typically performing large scale updates, produce reports, or handle housekeeping functions
baud
a unit of transmission speed equal to the number of times a signal changes state per second
beamforming
focusing a Wi-Fi signal in a specific direction
bearer channel (B channel)
the common name for the part of an ISDN line that carries the data
beerware
a relaxed license, with the user encouraged to pay for the software by donating to its author enough money to buy a beer
benchmark
a test used to measure the relative performance of hardware or software products, e.g. if you want to know which of two computers is faster
bespoke (tailored)
in technology, software made to meet the customer's demands and requirements
beta version (beta, beta software)
a pre-release version of software or an application program that contains most of the major features, but is not yet complete
bi-directional frame (B-frame)
a type of image frame used in MPEG compression, situated between I and P frames storing the differences in the image compared with the I or P frame both before and after it
binary adder
the part of the arithmetic-logic unit which performs binary addition and subtractionsumatorbinarny
binary arithmetic
arithmetic done to the base 2 using only 0 and 1 as its basic digits
binary number
a number (0 or 1) used in binary arithmetic
binary system (binary)
a number system that only uses two digits, i.e. 1 and 0
Binary Search Tree (BST, sorted binary tree, ordered binary tree)
a binary tree in which every node contains only smaller values in its left subtree and only larger values in its right subtree
biometric device
a security or medical device that measures biological elements in order to perform functions such as logging health/fitness data and authenticating users, e.g. a fingerprint reader or an eye scanner
biometrics
the science that uses computer technology to identify people based on physical features, such as fingerprints or voice scans
BIOS (Basic Input Output System)
a part of the operating system stored on a ROM chip that controls the input and output of data to peripherals
bistable
circuit whose output can have one of two stable states, i.e. on or off
bit (binary digit)
a small unit of storage capacity, one of the eight binary digits that make up a byte
bitcoin
a digital asset created by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2009 to work as a medium of exchange using cryptography to secure the transactions and to control the creation of additional units
bitcoin mining (mining)
a decentralized process of adding a block in a blockchain and creating new bitcoins
bitmap compression (compression)
a way of reducing the size of a stored image where different digital bits or collections of bits are used to describe each element of an image
bitmap
a computer image formed from pixels which are each stored as a value of one or more bits (= units of information)
bit-mapped
describing the image displayed on a computer screen whereby each pixel corresponds to one or more bits in memory
block (data block)
a collection of data stored together and treated as a single unit
blogger
someone who writes a blog
Blue Screen of Death (BSoD, Blue Screen of Doom)
an error screen displayed after a fatal Windows operating system error; also known as a stop error or stop screen
bluesnarfing
a hacking attack that uses a Bluetooth connection to access a mobile device
Bluetooth
a high-speed microwave wireless network system for portable devices developed by a group of companies consisting of Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Nokia and Toshiba
bookmark
to store a link to a webpage to make it easier to find in the future
boolean algebra
an algebra closely related to logic in which the symbols do not represent arithmetic quantities
boot loader
a small program that places the operating system of a computer into memory
boot sector virus
a self-replicating program that stores itself in the part of a disk containing the programs used to start up a computer
boot
to copy a part of the operating system into memory to allow a computer to start up
boss key
the key you hit to quickly hide something when you see your boss or uninvited coworker approaching
bot
a software application that runs automated tasks; typically, it performs tasks that are both simple and structurally repetitive, at a much higher rate than would be possible for a human
bracketing
setting the boundaries of a message or part of a message by marking its beginning and its end with special control bits
breadcrumb
navigation aid used in user interfaces allowing users to keep track of the locations within programs or documents
brick-and-click
banks or other companies that offer physical locations and online services
brick-and-mortar
banks or other companies that don't have a Web presence
bridge
a hardware and software combination used to connect the same type of networks or partition a large network into two smaller ones
broadband
able to carry signals transmitted over a wide range of frequencies
broadcast
transmit signals that can be picked up by a large number of receivers
broadcasting
distribution of audio and video content to a dispersed audience via any audio visual medium
browse (browse the Web, surf the net, surf the Internet, surf, surf the Web, browse the Internet)
to move from webpage to webpage using a Web browser program
browser (internet browser,web browser)
a program used for displaying webpages
browser add-on (add-on,extension,browser extension)
program integrated into your browser application, usually providing additional functionality
brute force attack (brute force)
a type of cryptanalytic attack based on checking all possible combinations of a password
buffering
a process of temporarily storing data from a fast source so that it can be fed at a steady rate to slower system
bug (error, flaw, mistake, failure)
a fault in a system
built-in (built in)
being an essential and permanent part of something, instilled, infused, integrated
bulletin board
an electronic noticeboard system that enables users to display messages for other users to read
burn
to record data onto an optical storage disc
bus network
a network setup in which each computer and network device are connected to a single cable or backbone
bus
a set of conductors that carry signals between different parts of computer
byte
unit of storage capacity, made up of eight bits and stores one character, i.e. a letter, a number, a space or a punctuation mark
cache coherency
a system that ensures that any changes written to main memory are reflected within the cache and vice versa
cache controller
the set of electronic logic circuits that control the operation of cache memory
cache hit
the process of successfully finding the required data stored in cache memory
cache
a hardware or software component that stores data so future requests for that data can be served faster
CAD (Computer-Aided Design)
a computer technology that designs a product and documents the design's process
call centre (call center)
a large office in which a company's employees provide information to its customers, or sell or advertise its goods or services by telephone
callback system
a system that automatically disconnects a telephone line after receiving a call and then dials the telephone number of the system that made the call to reconnect the line
CAM (computer-aided manufacturing)
the use of computers to control production processes, in particular, the control of machine tools and robots in factories
Caps Lock key (Caps Lock)
a key on a computer keyboard that you press to make any letters you type appear as capital letters until you press it again
captive portal
a webpage that a user must view and interact with before being given access to a public network, it is mainly used for authentication and is usually in place for free WiFi hot spots
careware
software licensed in a way that benefits a charity, for example Vim or Arachnophilia
cascade
a command organizing all the windows on the screen in a stack, making them all the same size, and placing them on top of one another but slightly offset
cathode ray tube (CRT)
a display device that uses an electron gun to fire a beam of electrons at a phosphor-coated screen
cell
an area in a spreadsheet which contains data
cellphone (cellular phone, cell, mobile, mobile phone)
a mobile telephone that communicates with a local transmitter located within a small geographic area called a cell
cellular network
a radio communications systems that divides a region into cells so that each region becomes a network with every point connected to a local transmitter within the cell
central processing unit (CPU)
the electronic processor at the centre of a computer
CGA (color graphics adapter)
first color display system for IBM PCs and compatible machines, it was superseded by EGA, VGA, SVGA, XGA
channel
a path for the transmission of data
chat room (chatroom)
a virtual space on a website where online discussions organised around specific interests are held in real-time by users typing text messages
check data
information written to disks in a RAID system which is used to restore data if one of the array drives fail
checkbox
element of options in a dialog box, i.e the user can select several options from the ones given
checksum
a calculated value that is stored with data to detect any errors that may occur when the data is copied or transmitted
chip (microchip)
an electronic integrated circuit in a small package
chipset
a number of integrated circuits designed to perform one or more related functions
circuit board
a board containing integrated circuits which make up the processor, memory, and electronic controls for the peripheral equipment of computers
circuit
a combination of electrical devices and conductors that form a conducting path
class
the term used for a collection of objects in object oriented programming
cleanse
a term used in data mining meaning to remove duplicate information and erroneous data
clear
standard Unix computer operating system command which is used to clear the screen
client
a network computer used for accessing a service on a server
client-server application
a program that is accessed from a client computer but most of the processing is carried out on a server computer
client-side program (client-side application)
on the internet, a program that is run on a client computer rather than on a server computer
clipart
simple pictures and symbols made available for computer users to add to their documents
clipboard
the section of memory that temporarily stores data while it is being copied and pasted
cloaking
a search engine optimization (SEO) technique in which the content presented to the search engine spider is different from that presented to the user's browser
clock
the set of electronic circuits used to control the timing of signals and synchronise different parts of a computer system
clock cycle
the time between two adjacent pulses of the oscillator that sets the tempo of the computer processor
cloud drive
a web-based service that offers storage space on a remote server, it is usually accessed over the Internet using client-side software, and is used to back up files
cluster controller
a device that controls a number of similar peripheral devices such as terminals and links them up to the main computer
cluster
a term used in data mining meaning a group of data that has similar features or is based on a limited data range
clustering
a method used in data mining that divides data into groups based on similar features or limited data ranges
CMYK
subtractive color model, used in color printing, or to describe the printing process itself, it refers to the four inks used in color printing
coax (coaxial cable)
a type of cable that has an inner conductor surrounded by a tubular insulating layer, surrounded by a tubular conducting shield, it usually also has an insulating outer sheath or jacket
codec
a program used for converting sound and video signals for use in a computer
cold-boot
load the operating system of a computer from 'cold'
COM program
a DOS program with a .com filename extension that loads and runs in 64 kilobytes or less of memory
command interpreter
the part of an operating system that processes commands (either program instructions or typed using a keyboard)
command line
an interface for typing commands directly to a computer's operating system
command-based
a computer system which interacts with the user by commands entered at a prompt on the screen
comment
part of a program text included for the benefit of the human reader and ignored by the compiler
Commodore 64
the model name of one of the first popular personal computers to be made available in the United Kingdom, which had a very good graphics system and was particulary suited to running computer games programs
compatible
able to operate on the same type of system or run the same software
compile
to convert a program written in a high-level language into machine code using a compiler
compiler
a program that converts the whole of a program into machine code before the program is used
compound document
an electronic document which may contain text, photographs, spreadsheets, audio or graphic
compress
to reduce to a much smaller size
compression
the process used for reducing a file to a much smaller size
computer centre (computer center)
a place where there is a central computer facility, usually containing mainframes
computer consultant
a person who is paid to advise on computing system issues
computer engineer
a person who designs and develops computer systems
computer game
an interactive game played against a computer
computer lab
a room full of computers used for study
computer language
a language used for writing computer programs
computer operator
a person whose job is to operate part of a computer system
computer salesperson
a person whose job it is to sell computers
computer science (computing science)
the study of computers and their use
computer
a general purpose machine that can be programmed to process data in a variety of ways
computerized (computerised)
changed so that it can be operated or controlled using a computer
computing support
a field of work that provides a service including setting up, maintaining and troubleshooting computing systems and providing technical advice to users
computing
the theory and practice of computers
concatenate
link together in a chain of series
conceptual schema
the logical design of a database
concurrent versions system (CVS)
a cross-platform code management system originally based on RCS
conference
a computer-based system enabling users to participate in a joint activity despite being separated in space or time
configuration (architecture)
the particular hardware elements and how they are interconnected in a computer system or network
configuration file
a file that contains settings information for a particular program; when the program is executed, it consults the file to see what parameters are in effect
configure
to adjust the settings
connectivity
the characteristic of being connected
constructor
in object-oriented programming, a special type of subroutine called to create an object, prepares the new object for use
consultant
a (computer) expert brought in to give advice
control bit
a data bit used to mark parts of a transmitted signal so that the transmission can be controlled, e.g a start bit marks the beginning of a character and a stop bit marks its end
control bus
the set of conductors that carry the control signals between the Control Unit and other parts of a computer
control panel
a utility that lets you configure and adjust a Windows system
cookie (HTTP cookie, internet cookie)
a piece of data stored by a website within a browser, and then subsequently sent back to the same website by the browser
corrupt
to damage in such a way that prevents normal use
counter
a component of the control unit which selects instructions one at a time from memory
cp
a Unix command for copying a file
CPU socket
a mechanical component that provides mechanical and electrical connections between a microprocessor and a printed circuit board (PCB)
crack
to break into a computer system in order to steal information or cause damage
crackers (black-hat hackers)
computer criminals who use technology to perform a variety of crimes: virus propagation, fraud, intellectual property theft, etc.
crapware (bloatware)
software bundled with a new device, pre-installed by the manufacturer
crash
to fail suddenly and completely usually referring to the failure of a hard disk
crashed disk rescuer
one of small programs included with an OS that improve the systems perfomance, used to restore disks and corrupted files
credential stuffing
the term related to a specific type of hacking that secures a user's credentials by breaching a system, and then attempts to use these credentials with other systems
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)
a technique used to define text styles, table sizes, and other aspects of web pages and apps
cursor keys
arrow keys which move the insertion point, and keys such as Home, End, Page Up and Page Down, which let you move around documents
cursor
a symbol on the monitor screen that indicates the point on the screen that is being used
cut and paste
to remove some data from a file and temporarily store it in the computers memory then insert a copy of the data in another position in the same or in another file
cybercrime
crime conducted via the Internet or some other computer network
cybernetics
the study of control and communication in animals and machines, used in the design of robots
cyberslacking (goldbricking)
a term used to describe the increased use of the internet on company computers by employees for their personal use or entertainment
cyberspace
the combination of all the data on all the computer networks throughout the world accessed using the Internet
cyberstalking
criminal practice where an individual uses the Internet to systematically harass or threaten someone
dark web
the public World Wide Web content that exists on darknets, networks which overlay the public Internet and require specific software, configurations or authorization to access
Data as a Service (DaaS)
a cloud strategy used to facilitate the accessibility of business-critical data in a well-timed, protected and affordable manner
data bank
an organized repository for comprehensive information on one or more subjects which can be searched through and stored quickly
data centre
a facility for storing large amounts of information
data channel (D channel)
the common name for the part of an ISDN line that carries signalling and supervisory information to the network
data communications
the transmission and reception of data signals using a communications network and appropriate protocols
data frame
one of a number of predefined slices into which data may be broken for transmission
data integrity
a measure of how resistant a system is to causing corruption in data while it is being stored or transferred
data mart (data warehouse)
a storage system that archives large amounts of data in a way that makes it easy to access
data mining
a process of analysing a large amount of stored data to find new useful information
data processing
the handling or manipulating of information called data which is specially prepared to be understood by the computer
data races
concurrent accesses to the same memory location in which at least one of the accesses is a write and at least one of the accesses is not notified to the compiler with an appropriate annotation
data stream
the flow of data
data
the information processed by a computer
database (database program, database software)
a type of applications program used for storing information so that it can be easily searched and sorted
database management system (DBMS)
a software system designed to handle multiple requests for data access while at the same time maintaining the integrity of the data
data-delivery system
a system for transmitting data from one computer to another
data-link layer
the part of a network communications system that supervises the transmission
data-manipulation language
a sublanguage of a database language providing facilities for storing, retrieving, updating, and deleting data records
date
a Unix and MS-DOS command for displaying the current date
DDP (Distributed Data Protection)
a managed (or hosted) service that provides customers with online, scheduled, automated computer system data backup and self serve restoration
debug
to find and fix faults in a program or system
decrcypt (decipher)
to recover the original text from an encrypted message
decision support system
system designed to aid managers in day-to-day operational decisions
decision table
a type of grid used in computer program design to show what actions should be taken by the program under different conditions
decision tree
data mining AI technique separatings data into subsets and then further subsets until patterns emerge within the data
declaration statement
in C, the element of the program that introduces an entity, giving it a name and establishing its properties
decode
to decide what a program instruction means
decompress (unpack)
to remove the compression, i.e. to expand to its original size
dedicated keys
a common name for the keyboard keys like CTRL, CapsLock, Enter (or Return), Backspace, Delete
deep copy
a copy of the contents of a data structure, including all its substructures
deep web
the portion of content on the World Wide Web that is not indexed by standard search engines
defacing
a computer crime that involves changing the information shown on another persons website without permission
default
an initial setting, option, etc., that a computer uses if user does not choose a different one, and to which can be restored in case of malfunctioning
defragment
reorganize data stored on disc by putting files into contiguous order
denial of service attack (DoS)
an attempt to make a computer resource unavailable to its intended users
desktop (PC, desktop PC, desktop computer)
a personal computer that is designed to be used on an office desk
desktop application
a computer program designed to be used on a desktop computer
desktop
the main graphical user interface background screen that displays icons for other programs
destructor
in object-oriented programming, a method which is invoked when the object is destroyed
detonator
a device used to set off another process or event
developer
the person responsible for the program development process
development life cycle
the phases a software product goes through from when it is first thought of until it becomes obsolete, typically including: requirements analysis, design construction, testing (validation), installation, operation, maintenance and retirement
device control
the use of control characters to control external devices
device fingerprint
a compact summary of software and hardware settings collected from a remote computing device
device
a piece of hardware that is attached to a computer and is not part of the main central processor (CPU)
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
a protocol for assigning an IP address to each computer automatically as it joins the network, for use as long as it remains connected, rather than assigning a permanent IP address in advance
dialling up
using a modem to connect a terminal or PC to a remote computer
dial-up networking
a communications system that allows computers to connect together using a telephone line
dictionary attack
a form of password cracking using a previously created list of the most possible combinations
differential backup (differential)
a type of backup that copies all selected files on a system that have been changed since the last time a full backup was carried out
digit
a number which has only one character: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8, or 9
digital camera
an input device for taking pictures; it has an electronic lens and uses electronics for storing the images rather than chemical film
digital cash
electronic currency that is stored on electronically sensitive cards or exists in cyberspace and is used for making electronic purchases over the Internet
digital certificate
an electronic message used to show a transaction is trustworthy, containing information about the company processing the transaction including their public key and is electronically signed by a trusted issuer
digital copy
a commercially distributed computer file containing a media product such as a film or music album
digital currency (cryptocurrency)
a digital asset designed to work as a medium of exchange using cryptography to secure the transactions and to control the creation of additional units
Digital Research disk operating system (DR/DOS)
a DOS-type operating system for IBM PC-compatible personal computers; alternative for MS-DOS by Microsoft
digital rights management (DRM)
a system for protecting the copyrights of data on the internet or other digital media by enabling secure distribution and/or disabling illegal distribution of the data
digital signal
a wave form or signal whose voltage at any particular time will be at any one of a group of discrete values (generally a two-level signal)
digital subscriber line (DSL)
a broadband communications system that allows digital signals to be transferred across an ordinary analogue telephone line
digital transmission
the sending of digital signals along a communications link
digital
of an electronic system that has only two states, e.g. off or on; using discrete digits to represent arithmetic numbers
digitize (digitise)
convert analog signals to digital representation
Direct Memory Access (DMA)
feature of modern computers that allows certain hardware subsystems within the computer to access system memory independently of the central processing unit
directX
a suite of APIs and programming functions used to develop, manipulate and manage graphical and multimedia components in Windows-based software
disk array (drive array, RAID, redundant array of inexpensive disks)
a linked collection of storage devices that work together to act like a much larger disk
disk directory
an index to the contents of a disk
disk drive
a storage device for reading from and writing to disks
disk enclosure (enclosure)
a specialized chassis designed to hold and power disk drives while providing a mechanism to allow them to communicate to one or more separate computers
disk error
a detected (or otherwise) error in the way that data is stored on the surface of a magnetic disk. Such errors are usually detected when reading from or writing to the disk
disk image (disk clone)
an exact copy of a computers hard drive which includes all the partition information, boot sectors, the file allocation table, operating system installation and application software; used to transfer a hard drives contents during a hardware upgrade, to restore a hard drives contents during disaster recovery or when a hard drive is erased, and to transfer the contents of a hard drive from one computer to another
disk operating system (DOS)
the generic term for the operating system developed for IBM PCs and their clones
Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS attack, DDoS)
an attempt to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users by flooding the bandwidth or resources of a targeted system, usually one or more web servers
distributed system (distributed computer system)
the organization of processing whereby each process is free to process local data. The processes exchange information with each other over a network.
divider
a vertical bar that divides a Windows Explorer window into two parts, where one part shows the drive folders and the other part shows the filenames of the files in the selected folder
DivX
a codec created by DivX, Inc.; it is one of several codecs commonly associated with , whereby audio and video multimedia are transferred to a hard disk and transcoded
Data Link Control (DLC)
the second lowest layer in the OSI Reference Model, every network interface card (NIC) has an address or identifier (DLCI) that uniquely identifies the node on the network
Downloadable Content (DLC)
additional content possible to be downloaded within a video game; it mostly contains extra maps, levels or special items
demilitarized zone (DMZ)
a computer or small subnetwork that sits between a trusted internal network, such as a corporate private LAN, and an untrusted external network, such as the public Internet
document-image processing
a system that takes scanned images and stores them on computer for access rather than filling the paper copies of the document
document processing
machine-processing, reading, sorting, etc. documents that are generally readable both by human and computers, e.g. bank cheques
document
produce the material that serves to describe a program and make it more readily understandable
domain name server
a network server computer used for operating and controlling the domain name system
domain name system (DNS)
system of associating the name of a device on a network such as the Internet with its numerical address so that the name can be used by the user and the numerical address can be used by the network system
domain name
an identifier used on the Internet in place of the numerical Internet address, identifying the host, the type and the country code, e.g. holyrood.ed.ac.uk
donationware
software that is free to use, but encourages users to make grants to the developer
dot-matrix printer
a printer that prints by hammering pins an inked ribbon
double data rate (DDR)
a type of memory that transfers data on both the up and down cycles of the control signal, making it faster than earlier types of memory
download
a process of copying a file from a server to a client computer in a network
downstream
the signal path for receiving communications from a server to a client computer in a network
dots per inch (dpi)
measure of graphical resolution, it refers to the number of dots (= small spots) of ink a printer can produce in each line measuring one inch, an image with more dots looks clearer
drag and drop
to move data from one location to another with a mouse, holding down the mouse moves the selected data, and releasing the mouse button drops the data in the new location
drag
hold down the mouse button, move the pointer to a new place and then release the button
driver
a systems program that controls a peripheral device
drop-down menu
a list of choices on a computer screen which is hidden until you choose to look at it
Document Type Definition (DTD)
a set of markup declarations which define the structure and the legal elements and attributes of and XML document
desktop publishing (DTP)
the design and production of publications using personal computers with graphics capability by combining text and artwork to produce documents properly formatted for print, Web, or mobile devices such as newsletters, brochures, books, Web pages, etc.
dump
in a system handling large numbers of users files stored on magnetic disk, to take a periodic record of the state of the disks that are made on magnetic tape in order to protect against accidental overwriting or mechanical failure of the disk
duplex
able to transfer data in both directions, i.e. can send and receive data
earphones
sound output devices that fit into the ears of the user
earth
a common name for an electrical ground point or zero voltage point
editor
computer program for making changes to text in computer programs or data
edutainment
a system that has both educational and entertainment value
Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer (ENIAC)
the first electronic general-purpose computer; it was Turing-complete, digital, and capable of being reprogrammed to solve a full range of computing problems
email attachment (mail attachment, attachment)
a file that is attached to an email message
emoticon
facial expression represented by keyboard characters
emulation (emulating)
the process of imitating a hardware/software program/platform on another program or platform
encapsulation
a key feature of object-oriented programming that bundles data and program instructions into modules called objects
encoder
a computer program that converts WAV files into MP3 files or vice versa
encrypt (encode)
to transform data into coded form to make it secure
encryption
the transformation of data into coded form to make it secure
enter (enter key)
another name for the RETURN key on a computer keyboard, pressing it inserts the data into the memory of the computer
environment variables
values that impact the processes and behavior of running computer systems and OS environments; running programs may access their values for configuration; included in all Unix operating systems and in most Microsoft operating systems
Electronic Program Guide (EPG)
a service in MPEG TVs where users can check current TV programme, as well as get to know what will be aired next
EPOS till (EPOS, electronic point of sale)
acomputerised cash register that edits records in sales and stock control databases
eraser
used to remove areas of color from the current layer or from a selection of this layer
ergonomic
describing something which is designed to take into account the human who is to use it
error code correcting memory (ECC memory)
a type of memory often used in server computers that automatically fixes simple memory errors without requiring the rebooting of the computer
error message
information that appears on a computer screen or other device to state that you have made a mistake or that something has gone wrong in a program battery, one or more electrochemical cells that converts stored chemical energy into electrical energy used to power electrical equipment
eSATA
a hardware implementation of the ATA disk drive protocol for connecting external disk drives to computers, similar to SATA but uses different connectors
esoteric programming language (esolang)
a computer programming language designed to experiment with weird ideas, to be hard to program in, or as a joke, rather than for practical use
ethernet
a widely-used local area network standard that broadcasts packets of data that are addressed to particular devices on the network, where each device on the network reads the address and passes it on to the correct device
European Article Number (EAN)
the European price and item codes commonly used in barcode systems
exception
result of executing incorrect instructions e.g. divide by zero
executable
containing instructions that can be run or executed by the processor
execute (run, launch)
to perform a computer operation by processing a program instruction
expandable
able to accommodate additions to a computer system capacity or capabilities
expansion card
an electronic circuit board used for adding facilities to a computer
expansion slot
a long thin connector that is used for adding additional electronics in the form of expansion cards
expert system
an artificial intelligence program that collects and uses human expertise to allow non-experts to solve specialised problems
exploit
a piece of software, a chunk of data, or a sequence of commands that takes advantage of a bug or vulnerability in order to cause unintended or unanticipated behavior to occur on computer
extensible
able to be added to, e.g. in a language of this kind a developer can add their own terms
external hard drive (external HDD)
removable hard disk drive that offers independence from system integration, establishing communication via connectivity options, such as USB
external schema
a user`s permitted view of data in a database
external
any peripheral device that is not housed inside the computer cabinet
extranet
a system of computers that makes it possible for particular organizations to communicate with each other and share information
facsimile machine (fax)
a machine which will provide electronic transmission of documents over telephone lines
failure
a state of inability to perform a normal hardware or software function
fan
a part mounted on a heat sink, used to reduce temperature for actively exhausting hot air
FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)
listed questions and answers, all supposed to be commonly asked in some context, and pertaining to a particular topic
favicon
a small icon that identifies a website in a web browser typically displayed in the browser's address bar (sometimes in the history as well) and next to the page's name in a list of bookmarks
fault tolerance
a computer's ability to recover from hardware errors
fault-tolerant
of a computer system, having the ability to recover from an error without crashing
floppy (FDD, floppy disk drive)
a computer device used to write and read floppy disks
feature
facility provided by an application
feedback
information or statements of opinion about something, such as a new product, that provide an idea of whether it is successful or liked
fetch
to go and get the next instruction or piece of data from memory
Fibre Channel
a high speed interconnection standard used in storage area networks
fibre optics
data transmission using cable made of optical fibres instead of copper wire
fibre-optics cable
a type of plastic or glass connector that enables signals to be carried using laser light
field
a section of a database where an item of data is stored
First In First Out (FIFO)
a method of processing and retrieving data where the first items entered are the first ones to be removed
File Area Network (FAN)
a computer networking approach including multiple methods for file sharing and data management over a network
file server
a main computer that provides a storage area for data files on a network
file transfer protocol (FTP)
an Internet service that allows users to transfer files from one computer to another
file virus
a virus that attaches itself to a program file
file
information held on disk or tape in order for it to exist beyond the time of execution of a program, which may hold data, programs, text, or any other information
filename extension
a suffix (separated from the base filename by a dot or space) to the name of a computer file applied to indicate the encoding (file format) of its contents or usage
filename
metadata about a file; a string used to uniquely identify a file stored on the file system, different file systems impose different restrictions on length and allowed characters
filestore
a collection of computer files stored centrally on a network server
filters (effects)
special effects that can be applied to a picture, including drop shadows, textures, distortions, etc.
firewall
a combination of hardware and software used to control the data going into and out of a network, used to prevent unauthorised access to the network by hackers
firmware
system software, part of the operating system, that is held in ROM
first-person shooter (FPS)
a video game genre centered on gun and projectile weapon-based combat through a first-person perspective
fix (patch)
a solution to a software defect; typically a new version of a program issued in order to correct a problem
flag
to mark in a way that indicates that a particular condition has occurred
flash drive (pendrive, USB flash drive, flash disk, finger disk, flash memory, flash key, USB key, USB stick. memory stick)
an electronic memory storage device that plugs into a computer and acts like a disk drive
flash video (FLV)
container file format used to deliver video over the Internet
flash
a kind of memory that retains data in the absence of a power supply
flat file database
a simple database in which all the data is stored in one table which is not related to any other table
flatbed scanner
a type of optical scanner that consists of a flat surface on which you lay documents to be scanned
flowchart
a kind of diagram used by programmers to show the logical steps in a program or by systems analysts to show logical steps in the design of a system
folder (catalog, catalogue, directory)
a virtual container within a digital file system which groups computer files
font
the combination of typeface and other qualities, such as size, pitch, and spacing
footer
a piece of text, such as a title or initials, that appears at the bottom of every page of a document or book
formula
entry that has an equation which calculates the value to display
forward
to pass on without changing the content, e.g. a received email can be passed on to another address
fractal
a complicated irregular line or pattern in mathematics built from simple repeated shapes that are reduced in size every time they are repeated
frame
a section of a webpage that acts as an independent browser window; clicking on a link in it can cause a webpage to be displayed in another one, e.g. a menu in it can provide links to webpages that are displayed in another one
free up
to make space available, e.g. by deleting files on a hard disk
freeware
computer programs that are made available to anyone who wants to use them at no cost to the user
frequency band
a set of frequencies that are used together to provide a path for the transmission of signals
frequency display
an electronic device for showing the freguency of a signal
frequency hopping
a process of changing frequencies within a fixed bandwidth during a transmission so that other transmissions can use the same bandwidth at the same time without interfering with each other
front side bus (FSB)
the set of connectors on a motherboard that carry data signals between the processor and memory
full backup
type of backup that copies all the selected files on a system whether or not they have been edited or backed up before
full-duplex
able to transfer data in both directions simultaneously, i.e. data can be transmitted and received at the same time
function key
one of the keys at the top of the keyboard which make the computer perform particular operations, it can be programmed to do special jobs
function register
a register used to control the processing of a function
function
relation between a set of inputs and a set of potential outputs with the property that each input is related to exactly one output
functional language
a programming language whose programs consist typically of sets of unordered equations that characterize functions and values. The values that are characterized by the equations include the desired results, and these values are calculated by executing the program
functions
ready-to-use formulae that help you perform specialized calculations, e.g. SUM, AVERAGE, etc.
fuzzy logic
a reasoning paradigm that deals with approximate or imprecise information by enabling variables to be described (often linguistically) and acted upon in terms of their degree of membership in predetermined sets
fuzzy (of an image)
having shapes that do not have clear edges
garbage collection
the process by which dynamically allocated storage is reclaimed during the execution of a program
gateway
a device that links two networks in a way that is usually visible to the network users (as opposed to a bridge which is not visible). Gateways may deal with differences of protocol and naming convention when converting between the two networks
geek
although it was originally a derogatory term used for an expert lacking in social skills, it is now used in computing to mean a dedicated expert
general-purpose language
a computer language that can be used to write different types of programs
get listed
to register the web address of a website on an Internet search engine
ghosted item
a file-backed item that was synchronized without its file stream
gitHub
a Web-based revision control hosting service for software development and code sharing
glitch
an unexpected disturbance in the flow of electricity to a PC, network, or server, most commonly due to a power surge or a dirty connection, can sometimes cause a computer to crash
global positioning system (GPS)
a system that determines the user's location by comparing radio signals from several satellites
GNOME
a project of complete user-friendly Unix-like desktop system based entirely on free software, a part of the GNU project and the Open Source movement
GNU Compiler Collection (GCC)
a compiler system produced by the GNU Project supporting various programming languages
Google Doodle (doodle)
a special, temporary modification of the Google's logo intended to celebrate events, achievements and people
GPU (graphics processing unit)
a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory in such a way so as to accelerate the building of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display
grammar check
software that attempts to correct the grammar of a piece of text, or offer advice on its structure
graphical user interface (GUI)
a style of interaction between the user and the computer involving a graphics screen, icons, and some form of pointing device such as a mouse. See command line interface and window
graphics card
the equipment inside a computer that creates the image on the screen
graphics tablet
an input device used by designers consisting of a flat, pressure-sensitive pad which the user draws on or points at with a special stylus, to guide a pointer displayed on the screen
graphics
a non-character based method of displaying information on a screen, usually used for displaying pictures, where the basic unit from which the display is built up is the pixel
grayware (greyware)
a term applied to unwanted applications or files, not classified as malware, but able to worsen the performance of computers and cause security risks
greenfield (greenfield project, greenfield software)
a software project developed from scratch rather than built from an existing program, e.g. of developing a system for a totally new environment, without concern for integrating with other systems
grep
a Unix command for searching through one or more text files for a specific text string
grid
used for touch-screen and pen-based computers. Voltage is sent across the glass in horizontal and vertical lines forming it
groupware
software that is designed to help groups of people work together more effectively
hack and slash (HNS, hack'n'slash, action RPG)
video games similar to RPG where the most important things are killing monsters, getting experience and upgrading a character's skills
hack
to gain unauthorised access to a network system
hacker
a skilled programmer who attempts to gain unauthorised access to a network system
half-duplex
able to transfer data in both directions but only in one direction at a time, i.e. data can be transmitted or received but not at the same time
handheld (handheld computer)
a small portable computer that can be held in one hand
handheld scanner
a small handheld scanning device ideal to capture small pictures and logos
hands-free
used to describe a piece of equipment, especially a phone, that you can use without needing to hold it
handwriting recognition
computer ability to read and interpret handwritten input from sources such as paper, photograps, displays etc; it is highly releated to OCR (optical character recognition) but besides that it also handles formatting, segmentation and sorting for the best results
hard disk (HDD, hard disk drive, hard drive)
a common magnetic storage device that reads and writes data on a metal disks inside a sealed case
hard error
an error occurrence in a computer system that is caused by the failure of a memory chip
hardware
the physical components of a computer system
hashtag
a word with the symbol # in front of it, used especially in social media and microblogging to identity or search for subjects of interest, e.g. #love #cookie #selfie
head, (disk head, drive head, disk drive head)
the part of hard disk that reads and writes data on disk
header
the first section of a message that contains information about the content and transmission of the message including the sending and destination addresses
headphones (headphone, headset)
sound output device that fits over the ear of the user
heat sink
a passive heat exchanger component that cools a device by dissipating heat into the surrounding air
help-desk (helpline, helpdesk)
a telephone service for helping users solve problems that occur on computer systems
hexadecimal (hex)
positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16
HFS (Hierarchical File System)
a proprietary file system developed by Apple Inc
high-level language
a programming language closer to human language than low-level computer languages such as machine code or assembly language
high-level program
a computer program written using a high-level language
highlight
to select by marking on the display screen
hijacking
a computer crime that involves redirecting anyone trying to visit a certain website elsewhere
hologram
a three-dimensional image reproduced from a pattern of interference produced by a split coherent beam of radiation (such as a laser)
homepage
the main start page of a website
host
a computer that provides a service on a network or a program that carries a virus
hotspot
the location of a wireless access point, often found in public places such us airports, stations and hotels to provide a connection to the internet
hover
to hold a cursor over an icon for a short period of time
hub
an electronic device at the center of a star network topology; a common connection point for devices on a network
hybrid cloud storage (hybrid-cloud storage)
a combination of public cloud storage and private cloud storage where some critical data resides in the enterprise's private cloud while other data is stored and accessible from a public cloud storage provider
hybrid database
a relational database system that supports both in-memory and on-disk storage
hybrid encryption
a method of encryption that combines two or more encryption schemes and includes a combination of symmetric and asymmetric encryption to take advantage of the strengths of each type of encryption
hybrid hard drive (HHD, hybrid)
a type of large-buffer computer hard disk drive, different from standard hard drives, as it integrates the cache using non-volatile memory or even a small Solid-state drive (SSD)
hyperlink
a text or image in a webpage that causes a related webpage to be displayed or another program to be started when the user clicks on it
hypermedia
a combination of videos, images, sounds, text, etc connected together on a website, which you can click on in order to use them or to go to other related videos, websites
hypertext markup language (HTML)
a page description language that has a set of tags that can be inserted into a document to make it act as a webpage; the tags determine how the document is displayed on the screen and marks the position of hyperlinks
hypertext transfer protocol (http)
application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems, it is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web
icon
a small picture used in a WIMP system to represent a program folder or file
IDE (integrated development environment)
a software application that provides comprehensive facilities to computer programmers for software development
IDL (Interface Definition Language)
a computer language or syntax used to describe object interfaces by their names, methods, parameters, events and return types
image editor
a computer program that allows the user to make changes to images
image map
an image with separate areas that contain hyperlinks to different parts of a website
immersion
a perception of being physically present in a VR surrounding
inbox
the folder in an email program where emails are stored when they are first received
incremental backup
a type of backup that copies all the selected files that have been changed since the last full differential or incremental backup
indent
in word processing, the distance, or number of blank spaces used to separate a paragraph from the left or right margins
index generation
the facility to automatically generate a sorted alphabetical index for a document
index
a set of links that can be used to locate records in a data file
industrial scientific and medical band
a set of radiowave frequencies centredarround 2.45 GHz used for industrial scientific and medical devices and for Bluetooth devices
infected
being inhabited by a computer virus
infector
something that transmits a computer virus
inference engine
the part of the expert system that operates on the knowledge base and produces inferences
inference tree
the structure of a set of inferences which show how a conclusion was reached
information separators
control characters used to delimit the boundaries of pieces of information
information superhighway
an informal term for a global high-speed network providing communication services that are freely available to everyone, i.e. a highly-developed Internet system
information system
a computer-based system with the defining characteristic that it provides information to users in one or more organizations
Information Systems Manager (ISM, IS Manager)
a person who manages a computer-based service that provides information that is useful to a particular organisation
inheritance
OOP feature allowing for specific instances of a class to inherit all the properties of the class
in-house
done by employees of an organisation rather than people outside the organisation
initialise (initialise the hard disk, initialize, initialize the hard disk)
to reboot or restart the computer
ink cartridge (inkjet cartridge, cartridge)
a replaceable component of an inkjet printer that contains the ink (and sometimes the print head itself) that is deposited onto paper during printing; contains one or more partitioned ink reservoirs; certain manufacturers also add electronic contacts and a chip that communicates with the printer
inkjet printer (ink jet printer)
a printer that produces an image by squirting a fine jet of ink onto specially absorbent paper
input device
a piece of equipment used for putting data into a computer
input port
the socket into which an input device may be plugged on a computer
input tagging
a feature of word-processing software that allows text to be pre-coded with tags so that the correct format can be applied automatically
input
to put data into a system / data put into a system
input-output
the part of a computer system or the activity that is primarily dedicated to the passing of data into or out of the central processing until
instant messenger (IM, messenger)
an app allowing users to communicate over the internet in real time
instruction
an order given to a computer processor by a computer program
integrated circuit
an implementation of a particular electronic-circuit function in which all devices required to realize the function are fabricated on a single chip of semiconductor
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
a set of communication standards for simultaneous digital transmission of network services over the circuits of the public switched telephone network
intelligent agent
a computer utility program that uses AI to perform tasks for the user such as retrieving and delivering information and automating repetitive tasks
interactive video
a computerized video system used for learning or play, in which the user interacts with the video
interactive
allowing two-way communication so that the user can respond or interact with the system
interface
the hardware or software that connects two systems or a user and a system and allows them to communicate with each other
internal memory
memory held within the CPU, the main storage or primary memory of the computer
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
a set of standards in the OSI network layer used for network diagnostics, transmission control, also in 'ping' and 'traceroute' utilities
Internet Mail Access Protocol (IMAP, IMAP4, Internet Message Access Protocol)
a set of standards for accessing email messages stored on an email server, initially only retrieves message headers
Internet of Things (IoT)
the networked connection of physical objects; one of many technology transitions that enable the Internet of Everything
Internet Protocol (IP)
the basic set of standards for enabling computers to communicate over the Internet
internet protocol address (IP address)
a code number assigned to every node on the internet identifying the major network and the sub-networks to which the node is attached
Internet Service Provider (ISP)
an organisation that provides Internet connections for a fee
interpreter
a program that converts other programs into machine code line by line as the programs are being used
intra frame (I-frame)
a type of image frame used in MPEG compression which contains only information in the picture itself
intranet
a computer network that is internal to an organisation and uses the TCP/IP protocol in the same way as the Internet
inventory
in a roleplaying game, the collection of items your character is currently carrying
IP-layer (IP layer)
the IP part of a TCP/IP system
IPS panel
screen technology used for LCDs that was designed to solve the main limitations of TN LCDs
IRC (Internet Relay Chat)
chat system developed by Jarkko Oikarinen in Finland in the late 1980s
IrDA (Infrared Data Association)
a complete set of protocols for wireless infrared communications, an industry-driven interest group that was founded in 1993 by around 50 companies
iris recognition
a process of identifying a user by scanning their eyes
Isolation adapter
an electronic device that isolates a network system from high voltages and allows it to use the mains electricity cables for connecting computers together and transferring data
Iteration
a process that is repeated as long as certain conditions remain true
jailbreaking
the process of removing the limitations imposed by manufacturers on devices running an operating system through the use of custom kernels
joystick (joy stick, joy-stick)
a cursor control device in the form of a movable stick that is usually used for controlling video games
JPEG (JPG)
a commonly used method of lossy compression for image
JUMP command instruction (JUMP command, JUMP instruction, JUMP, GOTO)
a programming instruction that causes a program to change its normal sequence
junk email (junk, spam, bulk, bulk email)
unwanted and unsolicited email that is normally advertising or trying to sell something
KDE
a graphical user interface used with the Linux operating system; Matthias Ettrich chose to use Trolltech'sQt framework for the this project
kernel
the lowest level layer at the core of an operating system, which deals with allocating hardware resources to the rest of the operating system and the application programs.
keyboard shortcut
a series of one or several keys that invoke a software or operating system operation when triggered by the user
keyboard
the main electronic input device that has keys arranged in a similar layout to a typewriter
keylogger
a software program or hardware device that records all keystrokes on a computer keyboard, used as spyware or as a surveillance tool
keystroke
the process of pressing and releasing a key on a keyboard
keyword stuffing
an SEO technique used by Web designers to overload keywords onto a Web page so that search engines will read the page as being relevant in a Web search
keyword
a word used to categorise documents or records in a file, also using such words can be used by a search engine to find relevant links on the Internet
killer application (killer app, killer)
a computer application of such great value or popularity that it assures the success of the technology with which it is associated
Kindle
a line of Linux-powered portable e-book reader devices developed by Amazon that enable users to shop for, download and read electronic versions of books, newspapers, magazines, websites, blogs and more
knowledge base
a collection of information that can be easily modified, revised and manipulated to enable the user to solve particular problems
L2 cache (L2, level-2 cache)
a memory cache outside the CPU
lag
a noticeable delay between the action of players and the reaction of the server in a video game
LAN (Local Area Network)
a network linking a number of nodes in the same area, limited usually to a building or sites up to a kilometre apart
language processor
software that performs computer language translation
laser printer
a printer that prints using toner powder and laser light on a photosensitive drum
latency
the time between initiating a network request and receiving a response (in milliseconds)
layer
in graphics software the term used to describe the different levels at which you can place an object or image file
layout
the overall design of a page, spreadsheet, or book, including elements such as page and type size, typeface, and the arrangement of titles and page numbers
leased line
a cable connection that is rented for use in a communication system
light-emitting diode (LED)
a semiconductor diode which glows when a voltage is applied
level
in gaming, the main characteristic of a player, indicating his overall effectiveness
library
a set of programmed functions that are made available for use by any program
light pen (light-pen)
a computer input device in the form of a light-sensitive wand used in conjunction with a computer's CRT display, allowing the user to point to displayed objects or draw on the screen in a similar way to a touchscreen but with greater positional accuracy
line size
the amount of data transferred each time there is a transfer between the main memory and cache memory
link farm (content farm)
a group of websites where all hyperlinks lead to every other site in the group
linkage editor
a systems program which fetches required systems routines and links them to the application program object module
linked list
a method of organizing stored data in a computer's memory or on a storage medium based on the logical order of the data and not the physical order; all stored data records are assigned a physical address in memory that the computer uses to locate the information; it arranges the data by logic rather than by physical address
Linux distribution (distribution)
the Linux-user term for a complete operating system kit complete with the utilities and applications needed to make it do useful things, e.g. command interpreters, programming tools, text editors, typesetting tools and graphical user interfaces
liquid crystal display (LCD)
an electronic display device that uses liquid crystal cells to control the reflection of light
LiveCD
an operating system distribution that is executed upon boot using a CD-ROM, without installation on a hard drive
load module
the program which is directly executable by the computer
load
to copy a program from a storage device into the computer's memory
localhost (127.0.0.1)
the standard hostname given to the address of the loopback network interface
log on (log in, sign in)
to connect to a network system account, normally using a password
log out (sign out)
perform the necessary actions to close a computer program or leave a computer system
log
to record the time that an event happened; a record of when an event happened
logic bomb
destructive code introduced into a program that is triggered by some event taking place on the computer system at a later time
logic circuit
a digital electronic circuit that compares two or more inputs and gives an output according to a particular rule of logic
logical operation
an operation on logical values producing a Boolean result of true or false
logical record
the collection of data in a database relating to one subject
login
using a username and password to log into a computer system, network, device, or user account
look-up table
a method by which a program uses two sets of related records to find a required value, quicker than calculating the value using a formula but taking up more memory place
loop structure
used to repeatedly execute a group of statements
low-level language (low - level language, low level language, processor language)
a computer language such as machine code or assembly language that is closer to the form that a computer understands than to that of a human language
loyalty card
an electronic card that gives the owner discount on purchases at a particular store depending on how much they spend
lurk
to receive and read articles or messages in a newsgroup or other online conference without contributing to the ongoing exchange
MAC address (MAC)
a unique identifier assigned to network interfaces for communications on the physical network segment, used for numerous network technologies and most IEEE 802 network technologies, including Ethernet
machine code
a computer language that consists entirely of a combination of 1s and 0s
machine intelligence
another name for artificial intelligence
macro virus
a virus program in the form of a macro program
magic date
a date or dates that in some computer systems resembles a reserved number or flag with a special significance
magnetic stripe card (swipe card, magstripe)
a plastic card with magnetic stripe running across it containing confidential data
magnetic tape
a magnetic storage medium in the form of a thin plastic ribbon wound on a reel or a cassette, commonly used for backing up data.
mail analyst
someone who is resposible for directing mail, which has been scanned using a DIP system, to the correct recipient
mail bombing
a computer crime that involves inundating an email address with thousands of messages slowing or even crashing the server
mail server
a network service that stores email messages and enables email clients to send and receive emails
mailbox
a folder used by an email server to store a user's emails
mailmerge (mail merge)
a wordprocessing facility that causes a mailing list to be automatically combined with a standard letter to produce a separate copy of the letter addressed to each person on the mailing list
main memory
the electronic memory that holds the programs and data being used
main storage (primary storage, main memory)
the main area in a computer in which data is stored for quick access by the computer's processor
mainframe
a large computer which requires a special environment for temperature and humidity in order to run it; this is in contrast to minicomputer or microcomputer
mains line
the main electricity supply
maintenance (software maintenance)
the modification of a software product after delivery to correct faults, to improve performance or other attributes
malware
any software designed to do something that the user would not wish it to do, hasn't asked it to do, and often has no knowledge of until it's too late, including backdoor, virus, worm, Trojan horse; it typically affects the system on which it is run, e.g. by deleting or corrupting files on the local disks
management information system (MIS)
a computerized system for providing information to management
manufacturer
a company or country that produces goods in large numbers
markup language
a set of tags that can be inserted into a document to indicate its layout and appearance
massively parallel processing
being part of a system in which an application is processed by up to 200 or more processors at the same time; each processor using its own operating systems and memory and working on a different part of the program
maths function
a software feature which allows simple mathematical functions to be carried out (such as totalling columns)
media player
a computer program that can store, copy, and play sound and picture files
memory board
a circuit board which contains additional memory for a computer
memory
the electronic part of a computer system that is used for temporarily storing the programs and data that are being used by the processor
menu bar
a row of icons on a display screen that open up menus when selected
menu
a list of options displayed on a computer screen
menu-driven
describing a program that obtains input by displaying a list of options (the menu) from which the user indicates his choice
merge sort
a sorting technique that sequences data by continuously merging items in the list; every single item in the original unordered list is merged with another, creating groups of two; every two-item group is merged, creating groups of four and so on until there is one ordered list
message board
a place on a website where you can leave messages for other people to read
message-authentication code (MAC)
a number produced by a message-digest function that is used to make a message tamper-proof and provide message integrity
message-digest function
a program function that processes a message to produce a number called a message-authentication code, and then this number is used to make a message tamper-proof
message-integrity scheme
a system that allows the receiver of a message to detect whether someone has tampered with the message in transit
metadata
data about data in a document
microphone
a device that converts sound waves into an electric current
microwave
a high-frequency electromagnetic wave used in data communication systems
mirroring
a technique used in RAID 1 systems where at least two hard disks are paired in such a way that the hard disk controller writes each byte of data to both disks; this ensures that a backup exists should the primary disk drive fail
misdirection routine
the part of a computer virus that enables it to hide itself by altering the normal sequence of instructions in another program
Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game (MMORPG)
a type of video game in which players act out roles of characters and which allows thousands of gamers to play simultaneously in the game's evolving virtual world via the internet
Mobile Device Management (MDM)
a type of security software used by an IT department to monitor, manage and secure employee's mobile devices that are deployed across multiple mobile service providers and across multiple mobile operating systems being used in the organization
model-view-controller (MVC)
a software architectural pattern for implementing user interfaces, it divides a given software application into three interconnected parts, so as to separate internal representations of information from the ways that information is presented to or accepted from the user
modem
an electronic device that converts signals to enable a computer to be connected to an ordinary telephone line
modulation
a process of combining a data signal to enable a computer to be connected to an ordinary telephone line
monitor (VDU, visual display unit)
the main output device used to display the output from a computer on a screen
monochrome display
a kind of display able to show only a single colour, often green, amber, red or white, and often also shades of that colour
MOO (multi-user object oriented)
an internet virtual environment developed from multi-user adventure games that allows many users to interact
mosaic
the first widely-distributed graphical browser or viewer for the World Wide Web
motherboard (system board)
the main electronic circuit board inside a computer that holds and connects together all the main electronic components
mouse
a pointing device that functions by detecting two-dimensional motion relative to its supporting surface
mousepad
a surface for placing and moving a computer mouse
MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System)
operating system for x86-based personal computers; the first edition was launched in 1982, in particular by various generations of the Microsoft Windows operating system
MUD (Multi-User Domain)
a real-time virtual world, usually text-based
Multi-Chip Module (MCM)
an electronic package consisting of multiple integrated circuits (ICs) assembled into a single device; it works as a single component and is capable of handling an entire function
multi-core processor
a single computing component with two or more independent actual central processing units, which read and execute program instructions
multimedia
the combination of text graphics, animation, sound and video
multimodal input
the process of operating a user interface using a combination of types of input, e.g. keyboard and speech recognition
multimodal interface
a system that allows a user to interact with a computer using a combination of inputs such as speech recognition, hand-writing recognition, text-to-speech etc.
multiplexing
a technique of sending several signals through one transmission medium
multitasking
a technique used in an operating system for sharing a single processor between several independent jobs
MVS (multiple virtual storage)
the name given to a family of operating systems used on IBM mainframe computers
MySQL
relational database system management developed by Oracle
nagware
computer shareware that, on starting or before closing, displays a prominent reminder to pay for the program
NAK attack (negative acknowledgement attack)
a hacker attack that uses the negative acknowledgement control code character to enter a seemingly secure system
NAND gate
logic gate, produces an output which is false only if all its inputs are true
nanocomputer
a computer that has electronic parts which are so small that they can only be seen using a microscope
nanotechnology
the design and use of extremely small machines made of just a few atoms
NAP (Network Access Point)
a location where an Internet service provider or other network connects to a BACKBONE to access the Internet
NAS (Network Attached Storage)
a device that can be plugged into a network to provide a storage service
natural-language programming
the process of writing programs using a computer language that is very similar to natural human language
nerd
a slang expression for a person who is intensely interested in computers to the exclusion of other human activities (and even basic life skills); unlike geek, he or she is usually at least mildly insulting, though among some sets of people it can be a compliment
netiquette
a conventional set of ethical rules defining a proper behavior on the Internet
network analysis
the process of measuring movements of information in various parts of a computer network
network card (network adapter, LAN adapter, network interface card, NIC)
a piece of computer hardware, an electronic device that connects a computer to the web or to the LAN
network guru
a person who is an expert in networking and gives talks and advice on the future development of networking
network interface controller (NIC)
a computer hardware component that connects a computer to a computer network
network layer
the part of a network communications system that forms the data into packets and selects a route for the message
network modem
a modem shared by users of a network for calling an online service provider, an ISP, a service bureau, or other online source
network operating system
an operating system that is used to administer and control a network allowing computers to share hardware and software while providing file security and backup facilities
network switch (switch)
a computer networking device that connects network segments or network devices
network topology (topology)
layout pattern of interconnections of the various elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a computer, referring to the physical design of a network including the devices, location and cable installation
network
a combination of a number of computers and peripheral devices connected together / to connect a number of computers and peripheral devices together
neural network (neural net)
an artificial intelligence system that is capable of developing rules from given input so that it learns how to deal with more complex input
newbie (newb)
someone who is new to some topic, game etc., but willing to expand their knowledge about it
newsgroup
an Internet discussion group that uses a restricted area on a server computer to display messages about a common interest.
NFC (Near Field Communication)
a set of standards for smartphones and similar devices to establish radio communication with each other by touching them together or bringing them into proximity
nibble (nybble, nyble)
half byte; four bits
Nigerian Scam
a type of mail and email fraud that attempts to have individuals send money or disclosed banking account information based on false pretenses, the correspondences will typically imply that someone has inherited a large sum of money and needs assistance in acquiring the funds
node
a network terminal or point where a computer is connected to a network
non-braking space
a space character that prevents an automatic line break at its position
non-printing characters
characters that display on the screen, but do not print, indicating where the Enter key, the Spacebar, and the Tab key were pressed; also called formatting marks
noob (n00b)
a person who plays something for a long time and still doesn't know anything about that (they are still at the same lowest level of skills)
northbridge
a chip inside a computer that connects the central processing unit to other primary components in the system, it also connects to the southbridge, which controls the remaining components of the computer
NTFS (New Technology File System)
a file system that was introduced by Microsoft in 1993 with Windows NT 3.1; supports hard drive sizes up to 256TB; primary file system used in Microsoft's Windows 7, Windows Vista, Windows XP, Windows 2000 and Windows NT operating systems
NTP (Network Time Protocol)
an internet standard protocol (built on top of TCP/IP) that assures accurate synchronization to the millisecond of computer clock times in a network of computers
null
in programming, a special value used in several languages to represent the thing referred to by an uninitialised pointer; in databases, a special value that may be stored in some columns to represent an unknown, missing, not applicable, or undefined value
object storage
a generic term that describes an approach to addressing and manipulating discrete units of storage called objects
object
an object-oriented programming module that has its own properties created by bundling data and program instructions together
object-oriented programming (OOP)
a type of programming where programs are made from combinations of predefined modules that can be used over and over again
office application (office suite)
a computer program or set of programs that are used in a typical office, e.g. a wordprocessor, spreadsheet and database
offline
disconnected from a computer system or the Internet
OnLine Analytical Processing (OLAP)
decision support software that allows the user to quickly analyze information that has been summarized into multidimensional views and hierarchies
Open Source
part of a system of software development where anyone is free to take a copy of the source code and extend, develop or fix bugs in it
OpenGL (Open Graphics Library)
a specification of a universal API for generating graphics competing with and similar to Direct3D
operating system (OS)
the set of programs that control the basic functions of a computer and provide communication between the application programs and the hardware
Optical Character Recognition (OCR)
a process that enables a computer to scan and recognise printed characters using the reflection of light
optical disc
a computer disc that is read by a laser
optical drive
a type of storage device that reads or writes data using laser light, e.g. CD-ROM, DVD-RW
optical fiber
the medium associated with the transmission of information as light pulses along a glass or plastic strand
Option ROM (OROM)
firmware on adapter cards that control bootable peripherals
output
the processed data or signals that come out of a computer system
outsourcing
an arrangement in which one company provides services for another company that could also be or usually have been provided in-house; a trend that is becoming more common in information technology and other industries for services that have usually been regarded as intrinsic to managing a business
overclocking
the practice of running a CPU at higher than its rated clock speed
packet sniffer
a computer program which intercepts packets of data transmitted over the Internet
packet
a fixed size unit of data prepared for transmission across a network; messages are normally divided into such units before transmission
packet-switching network
a network that groups all transmitted data into suitably sized blocks, called packets
page-description language (PDL)
a type of programming language that use tags to define the layout of a document, e.g. HTML is such a language and is used to design webpages
pagination
the process of separating print or digital content into discrete pages
pane
a subsection of a graphical user interface window
paper jam
a situation in which paper cannot feed through a printer because it has gotten stuck, a common cause of it is that sheets of paper are stuck together when they enter the printer
parameter
information which is passed to a program subroutine
parity data
extra data bits added to the end of units of data before transmission and then checked and added after transmission to see if data has arrived accurately
parse
analyse the syntax of an input string
password
a secret code used to control access to a network system
paste
to insert a copy of data held in a computer's memory at a chosen position
PATA (parallel ATA)
the original hardware implementation of the ATA hard disk interface, using parallel data transmission through a rectangular 40-pin connector, later expanded to 80 conductors by using the two sides of each hole separately
patch
to insert programming code into a computer program to fix or modify it in some way
payload
the part of a virus that carries out the threat such as displaying a slogan on the screen
pay-per-view (PPV)
a type of pay television service by which a subscriber of a television service provider can purchase events to view via private telecast
payroll package (payroll, payroll program, payroll suite)
a set of computer programs used for calculating pay cheques
paywall
a system designed to monetize online and other digital information by preventing visitors from accessing web sites and similar content providers without having a paid subscription
PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect, Peripheral Controller Interface)
a computer bus for attaching hardware devices in a computer
PCI Express (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express)
an interface for connecting peripherals to the processor, faster than the standard PCI interface
PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association)
a type of interface for connecting credit-sized electronic upgrade cards to portable computers
peer to peer (peer-to-peer, P2P)
computer network in which each computer in the network can act as a client or server for the other computers in the network, allowing shared access to files and peripherals without the need for a central server
pen-based computer
a small computer that has a pen input device instead of a keyboard
pentest
a method of evaluating computer and network security by simulating an attack on a computer system or network from external and internal threats
performance
the speed of a computer or computer system
peripheral (peripheral device)
a piece of equipment that is connected to the central processing unit of a computer system
personal computer
a computer designed to be used by one person at a time
personal digital assistant (personal organizer, personal organiser, PDA)
a small handheld computer providing a variety of tools for organising work, e.g. a calendar, to do list, diary, address list, calculator, etc.
personal identification number (PIN)
a unique number used by electronic systems to indicate who a person is
personalize (personalise, customise, customize, adjust)
change, design or produce to meet someone's individual requirements
phablet
a mobile device with screen size typically from 5.3 to 6.9 inches designed to fill the gap between smartphone and tablet
phishing
pretending to be someone that can be trusted, in order to steal personal information such as passwords or credit card details
photon mapping
technique to simulate realistic lighting distribution
physical layer
the part of a network communications system that encodes the packets into the medium that will carry them and sends the packets along that medium
piconet
a set of very small low power wireless links consuming only picoamps of electricity that are set up between Bluetooth devices when they are within 10 metres of each other
piggybacking
a computer crime that involves using another person's identification code or using that person's files before he or she has logged off
PIN pad (PIN entry device, pinpad)
an electronic device used in a debit, credit or smart card-based transaction to accept the cardholder's secret four digit number
ping
computer network administration utility used to test the reachability of a host on an IP network and to measure the round-trip time for messages sent from the originating host to a destination computer
pipelining
a technique used in advanced microprocessors where the microprocessor begins executing a second instruction before the first has been completed
pirate
use a software that has been copied in breach of copyright
pixel (px)
an individual dot on a computer screen, its colour and brightness are controlled by the computer
Platform as a Service (PaaS)
a category of cloud computing services that provides a computing platform and a solution stack as a service
platform
a distinctive type of computer system that needs software to be written specifically for it, e.g. PC, Apple Mac, etc
plotter
computer printer for printing in wide-format
plug-and-play (plug&play, P&P)
relating to a piece of electronic equipment that can be used as soon as it is connected to a computer
plug-in
a hardware or software module that adds a specific feature or service to a larger system
podcast
a recorded programme that can be downloaded from the internet and listened to on an MP3 player
pointer
an arrow-shaped cursor
polygon mesh
a collection of vertices, edges and faces that defines the shape of an object in 3D computer graphics
polymorphism
a key feature of OOP programming by which different objects can receive the same instructions but deal with them in different ways
pop-up
a function of web page which automatically runs a new window with determined content in Internet browser
port replicator
a device that connects to a portable computer to make it easier to connect peripheral devices
port
to convert for use in another operating system or computer platform
portable (portable computer)
a computer that is small and light enough to be carried from place to place, usually can be powered by batteries
porting
modifying code that runs on one hardware platform or operating system so that it will properly execute on another hardware platform or operating system
Post Office Protocol (POP, POP3)
a message-retrieval protocol used by many mail clients to get messages from a server, allowing you only to download all messages in your mailbox at once; it works in pull mode, i.e. the receiving PC initiates the connection
post
to display a message in a computer newsgroup or bulletin board
power on self test (POST)
a function of the motherboards BIOS that checks your hardware to ensure that everything is present and functioning properly, before the BIOS begins the actual boot
PPP (Point to Point Protocol)
a protocol used to establish a direct connection between two nodes
predicted frame (P-frame)
a type of image frame used in MPEG compression, storing the differences in the image compared to the previous frame
presentation layer
the part of a network communications system that ensures the message is transmitted in a language that the receiving computer can interpret
presentation program (presentation software)
a computer software package used to display information, normally in the form of a slide show
primary disk drive
the main disk drive in a computer, usually in a PC known as a C drive
printed circuit board (PCB)
an electonic board that holds and connects the components of an elecronic circuit
printer
a common output device used for printing the output of a computer on paper
printout
a copy of information appearing on a computer screen that is printed on paper
private key
secret code known only to the owner that is used for encrypting and decrypting messages
procedural language
a computer programming language that enables programs to be written using sections of code known as procedures, where each procedure performs a specific task
processor
the part of a computer that processes the data
program
a set od instructions written in a computer language that control the behaviour of a computer /to write a set of instructions for controlling a computer using a computer language
programmer
a person who writes computer programs
programming language
a computer language used for writing computer programs
projector
an optical device for viewing fixed or moving image on the projection screen
proprietary software
computer software licensed under exclusive legal right of the copyright holder
protocol
a set of agreed standards
proxy
a server (a computer system or an application) that acts as an intermediary for requests from clients seeking resources from other servers
PS/2 (mini-DIN-6, Personal System/2)
an old type of connection ports (6-pin) for connecting a keyboard and a mouse to the PC; developed by IBM in 1987
pseudocode
a way of writing a description of a computer program using a mixture of natural language and computer language code
PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network)
the aggregate of the world's circuit-switched telephone networks that are operated by national, regional, or local telephony operators, providing infrastructure and services for public telecommunication, it consists of telephone lines, fiber optic cables, microwave transmission links, cellular networks, communications satellites, and undersea telephone cables, all interconnected by switching centers, thus allowing any telephone in the world to communicate with any other
public domain
a condition in which there is no copyright on a work such as a computer program allowing it to be freely copied and used
public key
a secret code the owner makes available to others so that can encypt messages they are sending to the owner
public-key cryptography
a method of coding messages using public and private keys to prevent others from reading them
pull mode
a type of communication where the receiving computer initiates the connection
pull-down menu
a list of choices that appear below a menu title on a display screen when the user clicks on the menu title using a mouse
push operation
a communication where the sending computer initiates the connection
quasi-language
a derogatory term for any programming language that, because of deficiencies, is not suitable for any serious work
query
a request for information from a database
quick-and-dirty (quick-n-dirty)
a technique where something is done fast and sloppily, usually due to time constraints, pressure, testing purposes, or because the task was not considered important
quicksort
an efficient sorting algorithm serving as a systematic method for placing the elements of an array in order
radio button
one of a set of mutually exclusive options in a dialog box, i.e the user can only select one, causing the others to be deselected
radio frequency (RF)
a rate of oscillation in the range of about 3 kHz to 300 GHz, which corresponds to the frequency of radio waves, and the alternating currents which carry radio signals
radio frequency identification (RFID)
a system for finding the position of a product using radio signals, it can be used to check where a product is in the supply chain
RAID level
particular arrangement of RAID array disks, usually given a number with higher numbers indicating more elaborate methods for ensuring a computer can recover from hardware errors, the best known are RAID 0 to RAID 5
rainbow table
a listing of all possible plaintext permutations of encrypted passwords specific to a given hash algorithm
Random Acces Memory (RAM)
a type of memory that can be accesses in any order, the main electronic memory of a personal computer and is used for storing the programs and data being used
Ranish Partition Manager (RPM)
a freeware hard disk partition editor, disk cloning tool, and boot manager, that gives a high level of control for creating multi-boot systems, available on the freeware live cd SystemRescueCD and the Ultimate Boot CD (not the Windows version), running under MS DOS or Free DOS
ransomware
a class of malware which restricts access to the computer system that it infects, and demands a ransom paid to the creator of the malware in order for the restriction to be removed
raw data
data that has not been processed
RDBMS (relational database managment system)
a database system that links files together as required
Read Only Memory (ROM)
computer memory that can permanently store data and applications within it
real-time
the immediate proccesing of computer data enabling interactive applications
reboot
to restart a computer operating system
record
a section of a database made up of related database fields; an item of data consisting of a number of characters or bytes to form a number, a name, or an address
recorder (recorder program, burner, CD burner, CD-burner)
a computer program that allows the user to create their own audio CDs with a writeable CD-ROM drive
Recycle Bin
the folder in Microsoft Windows operating systems where deleted files are stored
refactoring
a set of programming techniques used to improve clearness and readability of the source code; can be implemented ad-hoc, but is highly recommended as one of the final stages in production phase
registry
a hierarchical database that stores configuration settings and options on operating system; it contains settings for low-level operating system components as well as the applications running on the platform
reinstall
install (computer software) again, usually to solve a technical problem
relation
a data structure which consists of a set of records with identical internal structure associated with the connections between data
reliable stream service
a data management system provided by the TCP protocol to ensure that data is transferred across a network correctly, it structures and buffers the data flow looks for responses, and takes action to replace missing data blocks
repeater
a network device used to regenerate or replicate a signal
repetitive strain injury (RSI)
a painful medical condition which can cause damage to the hands, wrists, upper arms and backs especially of people who use computers and other forms of keyboard
resident
kept in the computer's memory
resident virus
a kind of computer virus that hides and stores itself within the computer memory, allowing it to infect any file that is run by the computer
resistor
an electronic component that reduces the flow of current in a circuit
resolution protocol
a set of standards for software used with internal look-up tables in a TCP/IP network for routing data through a gateway between networks
resolution
a measure of the quality of a display screen in terms of the amount of graphical information that can be shown on the screen, partly depending on the number of dots that make up the image
responsive web design (RWD)
a technique of building web pages that detect the visitor's screen size and orientation and change the layout accordingly
restore
to put data back into its original location
retouch
an extra part which is added, especially to an officially organized plan, system, agreement, etc.
return
expression in programing which terminates the execution of a program, procedure or function, and gives back the result value of the program, procedure or function
reverse engineering
taking an object apart to discover how it was originally designed and put together
revision control system (RCS)
a control system that automates the storing, retrieval, logging, identification, and merging of revisions
revolutions per minute (rpm)
a measure of the frequency of a rotation, annotating the number of full rotations completed in one minute around a fixed axis; it is used as a measure of rotational speed of a mechanical component
RFID (radio frequency identification device)
a label that stores information to identify an object and can be read using radio signals
RGB
an additive color model in which three-coloured light is added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors, the name of the model comes from the initials of the three additive primary colors
ring main
the main electrical supply circuit in a building.
ringtone
the sound made by a telephone to indicate an incoming call or text message
rip
to extract songs from a CD and turn them into WAV files
ripper
a program that extracts songs from a CD and turns them into WAV files
roaming
a general term referring to the extension of connectivity service in a location that is different from the home location where the service was registered
rocket science
something requiring great intelligence or technical ability
rollout (roll out, roll-out)
the implementation, introduction, of a new product, service, or policy to the public
route
to move data from node to node on a network
router
an electronic device that links different networks or parts of a network; it determines the path that a signal should take to reach its destination
routing table
a data table stored in a router or a networked computer that lists the routes to particular network destinations, and in some cases, distances associated with those routes
RPM (RPM Package Manager)
originally developed by Ethan Cohen at Red Hat for Red Hat Linux, it is now used by many GNU/Linux distributions it has also been ported to some other operating systems, such as Novell NetWare (as of version 6.5 SP3) and IBMs AIX as of version 4; it typically contains the compiled version of the software
RSA
an algorithm for public-key cryptography that is based on the presumed difficulty of factoring large integers
RTS (real-time strategy)
modification of strategy video games based on turns where player's actions and decisions are visible immediately
rule
the name given to patterns found in data when using neural networks
s/w
abbreviation for software
safe mode
a troubleshooting boot option that limits the operating system's operation to basic functions, starting it with only core drivers and services
salami shaving
a computer crime involving manipulating programs or data so that small amounts of money are deducted from a large number of transactions or accounts and accumulated elsewhere
salt
random data used as an additional input to a one-way function that hashes data, a password or passphrase
sandbox
a style of game in which minimal character limitations are placed on the gamer, allowing the gamer to roam and change a virtual world at will; in contrast to a progression-style game, such a game emphasizes roaming and allows a gamer to select tasks
scale
to change the size of an object while maintaining it's shape
scanner
an optical input device that uses the reflection of light to copy text or graphics into a computer
screen tearing
a visual artifact in video display; display information from two or more frames in a single screen draw
screensaver
a type of computer program initially designed to prevent phosphor burn-in on CRT and plasma computer monitors by blanking the screen or filling it with moving images or patterns when the computer is not in use
scroll
to move through displayed information smoothly on the screen either horizontally or vertically
scrollbar
the part of a graphical user interface window that allows the user to move through a document by clicking or dragging with the mouse
SCSI (Small Computer Systems Interface)
a standard way of connecting peripheral devices to a personal computer system, often used to connect hard disks and CD-ROM drives in server computers
SDRAM (synchronous dynamic random access memory)
a type of fast dynamic memory that uses a separate clock signal in addition to the normal control signals
search engine
a program designed to find information on the World Wide Web according to data entered by the user, usually accessed from a special website
sector
a formatted section of a circular magnetic track used for storing data on a disk
Secure Shell
a cryptographic network protocol for secure data communication, remote shell services or command execution and other secure network services between two networked computers
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
cryptographic protocol used for secure transmission of encrypted data stream
seek time
the amount of time taken by a disk drive to find a particular track on a disk
segment
a subdivision of data created by a network communications transport layer for which a checksum is generated
selfie (selfy)
a photograph that one has taken of oneself, typically one taken with a mobile phone or other digital camera and shared on social media e.g. Facebook, Instagram, Myspace
self-test
an automatic examination of a device
semaphore
a variable or abstract data type that provides a simple but useful abstraction for controlling access by multiple processes to a common resource in a parallel programming environment
semiconductor
a material, such as silicon, which allows electricity to move through it more easily when its temperature increases, or an electronic device made from this material
sensor
a device which is used to record that something is present or that there are changes in something
SEO (search engine optimization)
the practice of manipulating aspects of a website to improve its ranking in search engines; various approaches are taken to achieve that goal, such as submitting the website to directory services, and addressing the website's architecture and content
Serial ATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment, SATA)
a drive interface that feeds signals one after the other along the same connector, in contrast to the earlier, slower, parallel ATA standard that fed signals at the same time along a set of connectors
serial number
a number that uniquely identifies a product
serial port
the small connector at the back of the system unit of a personal computer that is used to connect a serial device such as a serial mouse or a modem; two serial ports labelled COM1 and COM2 are usually provided on a PC
serial
describing the transfer of data one bit at a time; control signals are also passed in sequence with the data
serialization
the process of translating data structures or object state into a format that can be stored and resurrected later in the same or another computer environment
service tag number
a number used to identify a computer for maintenance agreements
session layer
the part of a network communications system that opens communications and has the job of keeping straight the communications among all nodes on the network. It sets boundaries for beginning and end of a message and establishes whether the massages will be sent half-duplex or full duplex
SGML (Standard Generalised Markup Language)
the complex metalanguage from which both HTML and XML were created
shareware
software that is distributed freely and only paid for if the user decides to keep it
shell script
a text file that contains a sequence of commands for a UNIX-based operating system; in DOS operating systems it is called a batch file
shell
a graphical user interface for an operating system
shortcut
a special type of file in some operating systems that points to another file or device
sign up (register)
to create an account on a website
SIM card (SIM, SIM chip)
a plastic card in a mobile phone that contains your personal information and allows you to use the phone
Simple Network Management Procotol (SMNP)
a network management system which defines how status data is sent from monitored nodes back to a control station
simulation
a programmed virtual environment that imitates a real or planned system
Single Sign-On (SSO)
a session and user authentication service that permits a user to use one set of login credentials (e.g., name and password) to access multiple applications
site map
a webpage that is used to show the overall layout of a website
skin
a computer program that is used to change the interface of another program, e.g. to change the screen display on an MP3 player program
SLI (Scalable Link Interface)
a brand name for a multi-GPU technology developed by NVIDIA; two or more video cards together to produce a single output to increase the processing power available for graphics
slideshow (slide show)
an on-screen presentation of information or ideas presented in sequence
SM band
common name for the Industrial Scientific and Medical frequency band
Smalltalk
an object-oriented language, an object-oriented environment, and a library of objects first developed at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Centre
smart card reader
a device used for reading smart cards
smart card
a plastic card containing a processor and memory chip; it can be used to store large amounts of confidential data
smart device
a device that contains an embedded processor and memory
smartphone
a mobile phone that offers more advanced computing ability and connectivity than a contemporary feature phone
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
a set of standards for sending email from an email client and transferring email between server computers on the Internet
snail mail
letters or messages that are not sent by email, but by regular post
sneakernet
transfer of electronic information by physically moving storage media rather than transmitting the information over a computer network
social engineering
a psychological manipulation of people into performing actions or divulging confidential information
soft error
an error occurrence in a computer's memory system that changes an instruction in a program or a data value
Software as a Service (SaaS)
a software licensing and delivery model in which software is licensed on a subscription basis and is centrally hosted
software engineering
the discipline of designing high quality software solutions
software house
a company that designs and produces software
software piracy (piracy)
a computer crime that involves unauthorised copying of a program for sale or distributing to other users
software
the programs and data used in a computer
solid-state drive (SSD)
a data storage device that uses integrated circuit assemblies as memory to store data persistently
soundcard (audio card)
the electronic circuit expansion board in a computer that is used to process audio signals and connect to and control a microphone loudspeaker or headphone
source code
programming code that has to be processed by a compiler or translator to make object code for use in a computer
southbridge
one of the two chips in the core logic chipset on a personal computer motherboard, the other being the northbridge, also named Input/Output Controller Hub (ICH)
spaghetti code
slang expression used to describe a program's source code that is difficult to read or follow by a human because of how the original programmer wrote the code; it is often not organized and has portions of code that may belong at the bottom of the code at the top of the code or vice-versa
spam (junk, bulk email)
unsolicited email sent to large numbers of people indiscriminately usually advertsing or trying to sell a product
spammer
a person or company that sends unsolicited email
Spanning Tree Protocol (TP)
a link management protocol preventing media access control (MAC) bridge loops and broadcast delays on any Ethernet local area network (LAN)
speaker (loudspeaker)
an output device for providing sound output
spectrum analyser
an instrument that plots a graph of frequency band
spell checker (spellchecker)
a program that checks the spelling of words in a text document
spim
type of spam targeting users of instant messaging services
spit
the term used for spam on a VoIP system i.e. unsolicited telephone calls made using VoIP on the Internet
SPL (Shakespeare Programming Language, Shakespeare)
an esoteric programming language designed to make programs appear to be something other than programs; in this case, Shakespearean plays
splash page (splash screen)
the page of a Web site that the user sees first before being given the option to continue to the main content of the site, used to promote a company, service or product or to inform the user of what kind of software or browser is necessary in order to view the rest of the site's pages
splitter-based service
a DSL system that separates the data signal from the phone line as it enters a building and sends it to a DSL modem
spread spectrum
a radiowave system that switches rapidly between different frequencies in a frequency band allowing a number of devices to share the same frequency band without interfering with each other
spreadsheet (spreadsheet program)
a type of application program with an array of cells that is used for calculating formulas
spyware
a computer program that watches what people do with their computers, and then sends that information over the Internet
SQL injection
code injection technique, used to attack data-driven applications, in which malicious SQL statements are inserted into an entry field for execution
SSH (Secure Shell)
a security protocol based on a Unix shell for logging into a remote server; it provides an encrypted session for transferring files and executing server programs
SSHD (Solid State Hybrid Drive)
storage device containing solid-state drive (SSD) and hard disk drive (HDD)
stamina
in gaming, it describes the amount of power that a given character has to keep playing the game
standalone computer
computer which not connected to a network
star network (star, star network topology)
a simple network topology with all links connected directly to a single central node
start bit
a data bit that marks the beginning of a data block in a network transmission
start-stop transmission
another name for asynchronous transmission where data is sent one byte (or character) at a time
static earthing
connection to earth to prevent the build up of static electricity which could destroy electronic components
status bar
a narrow band displayed across the bottom of a window in a Microsoft Windows application to display useful information for the user, e.g. number of pages in a document
stealth virus
a type of virus that hides itself making it hard to detect
stop bit
a data bit that marks the end of data block in a network transmission
Storage Area Network (SAN)
a high-speed interconnection of shared storage devices
storage device
a piece of equipment used for reading from and writing to a storage medium
storage medium
a material used for storing programs and data
streaming
a process of downloading and storing the next part of a data signal while the first part is being used. In this way the data signal, e.g. an audio or video is fed to the slower destination device at a steady rate
string
a series of data characters which can be a mixture of letters or numbers
striping
a process where data is spread across all drives in a RAID array rather than filling up one disk with data before writing to the next disk in the array
structured language
a computer programming language tha requires the programmer to write programs made up of self-contained units or procedures
structured programming
the process of writing a program using a structured programming language
structured query language (SQL)
a high-level language for writing routines to query relational databases, originally developed by IBM in 1973, it is now an ANSI standard
style sheet
a word-processing software feature that ensures a uniform style within a document
stylus (stylus pen, pen)
an electronic I/O device that is used to draw or write on the screen
subfolder
storage area that provides a subdivision of a folder so that stored files can be organised into smaller groups
submenu
a list of choices that is displayed when the user clicks on an item in a menu
subnet mask
a 32-bit number that masks an IP address; divides the IP address into network address and host address
sub-network
a self-contained part of a larger network
subpage
a webpage that gives further datailed information about part of the information on a main webpage
subprogram, sub-program
a small program called by another program to perform a specific function
subset
a small group of related data that is part of a larger set of data
supercomputer
the most powerful type of mainframe computer
superset
a larger group of objects that include a smaller set of objects
supervisor (supervisor program)
the most important program in the operating system. it is resident and controls the entire operating system; it loads other operating system programs into memory when they are needed
support analyst
a person who provides help to computer users by studying their requirements and designing systems to provide for their needs
support engineer
a professional who provides help for computer users by designing, building, and maintaining computer systems
support group
a group of staff who are specialists in a particular piece of software
surf
to browse webpages on the Internet in an unplanned way
surge protector, fuse
an electronic device that protects equipment from damage due to sudden high voltage or current in the power supply
SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics)
an XML-based vector image format for two-dimensional graphics with support for interactivity and animation; its specification is an open standard developed by the World Wide Web Consortium
switched network
a network topology in which a central switching device is used to connect devices directly
sync byte
a start or stop bit pattern that marks the beginning or end of a transmitted data block
synchronise
to cause different processes to occur at the same time
synchronous orbit satellite
a satellite that orbits the Earth at a controlled speed so that it maintains its position in relation to the Earth
synchronous
occurring at regular intervals and in step with other systems usually controlled by an electronic clock circuit
syntactic sugar
syntax within a programming language that is intended to make the code more readable and easier to express
synthesizer
a device that uses electronic circuits to generate sounds
system tray
a section at the far right of a Microsoft Windows task bar that holds icons for the clock and other programs that run constantly in the background
systems administrator
a person who maintains a multi-user computer system
systems program (systems programme, systems software)
a program or set of programs that is used to control the basic functions of a computer system, e.g. operating system programs
systems programmer
a person who specialises in writing systems software such as operating system programs
systems programming
the writing of systems programs
systems routine
utility programs provided by the computer operating system, can be used for converting numerical data into different formats or performing operations on dates
tab
a dialog box component that is used to switch between different sets of data
table of contents (insert index, index)
a word-processing software feature which can automatically generate a table of contents for a document
table
used to refer to data held in a database in a conceptual schema which is a flat two-dimensional table
tablet
a mobile computer consisting of a screen only, and controlled by touching the screen
tag
a label used in a markup language such as HTML; attached to a piece of text to mark the start or the end of a particular function
tape drive
a device on which a magnetic tape is mounted in order that information may be transmitted from the tape to the memory of the computer or vice versa
tape
a magnetic storage medium commonly used for storing backup files
task manager
program used to provide information about the processes and programs running on a computer
taskbar
a desktop component that indicates what programs are currently being used and allows the user to switch between them
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
the official set of standards for determining the form of the signals used for transmitting data on the Internet
technophobic
having a fear or strong dislike of technology and technological devices
telecommunications engineer
a person who works with systems concerned with communications over long distances
telecommunications
branch of technology concerned with communications over long distances
telecommute
to communicate with your office by computer, telephone and fax while working a distance from your office, e.g. at home
telephony
the science of audio communication through electric devices, also commonly referring software that will make a computer act like a telephone
teletext
a text-based information service provided by television companies using part of the TV signal and visible on sets with suitable decoders
teller machine
a machine used for taking payments in large shops and supermarkets
telnet
an internet service that allows a user to connect to a multi-user server using a computer as a terminal
template
a preset format for a document or file, a pre-shaped pattern used as a guide for creating a new document of file
temporary file (TMP file, temp file, TMP, temp)
a file generated by an application and deleted automatically by the application that created it when the file is no longer required
term license
a type of software agreement wherein the customer pays maintenance fees for use of the software over a specified term and, unless the license is renewed, has no right to use the software after the term expires
terminal adapter
a device for connecting an ISDN system to an existing telephone line
terminal
a VDU screen and keyboard used to interact with a computer, usually with no computing capacity of its own
test suite
a set of sentences or phrases in a given language designed to test the effectiveness of a machine translation system
text editor
a computer program for editing basic data or program text, i.e. like a basic wordprocessor
texture mapping
a method for adding detail, surface texture (a bitmap or raster image) or color to a computer-generated graphic or 3D model
TFT display (Thin Film Transistor display, TFT)
a type of LCD screen display commonly used in portable computers, using a separate transistor to control each pixel on the display
The Onion Router (TOR)
a free software implementation of second-generation onion routing, a system enabling its users to communicate anonymously on the Internet
thermal printer
a printer that prints by heating regions of special heat-sensitive paper.
thin client
a low-cost centrally-managed basic computer with a keyboard and display screen processor and memory but no CD-ROM drive, floppy disk drive or expansion slots, e.g. a NetPC or a network computer (NC)
thread
a basic ordered sequence of instructions that can be passed through or processed by a single CPU core, or a collection of posts or emails, displayed in a forum or webmail
throughput
the amount of data that passes through a system in a given period of time
toggle-box
a screen icon in Windows Explorer that opens or closes a folder to show or hide its subfolders when the user clicks on it using a mouse
token
a unique sequence of bits granting permission to a user to send on a network
toolbar
a row or column of selectable icons to applications and files
tooltip
a label that appears on the screen when the user holds the mouse pointer over an icon
topology
the physical layout of a network
touchpad
a pointing device featuring a tactile sensor, a specialized surface that can translate the motion and position of a user's finger to a relative position on screen
touchscreen (touch screen, touch-screeen)
electronic visual display that can detect the presence and location of a touch within the display area
tower chassis
a personal computer case that stands on end and can be placed on the floor unlike the normal desktop case that sits flat on a desk under the monitor
track
a formatted circular magnetic storage area on a computer disk
trackball
an upside down mouse, consisting of of a ball supported on bearings so that it is free to rotate in any direction; the ball is rotated by the operator to control the cursor and as with a mouse, there are buttons to click to initiate an action
traffic
the volume of signals or data that passes through a network system
transaction processing
the processing of computer transactions by updating the computer file as each transaction takes place rather than storing them until later to be processed as a batch
transaction
a logical unit of work for a database
transceiver
short form of transmitter/receiver; a device that both sends and receives signals
transistor
a solid state electronic switch or amplifier
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
a connection-oriented protocol, the connection is established and maintained until the application programs at each end have finished exchanging messages
transmission
the sending of message
transponder
a device that responds to received coded radio signals by automatically transmitting a different coded signal
Transport Layer Security (TLS)
extension of Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol, allows client-server applications to communicate across a network in a way designed to prevent eavesdropping and tampering
transport layer
the part of a network communications system that protects the data being sent, subdividing the data into segments and creates checksum tests; it can also make backup tests; it can also make backup copies of the data
trapdoor
a technique used in a computer crime that involves leaving within a completed program an illicit program that allows unauthorised - and unknown - entry
Trash
the folder in Linux/MacOS operating systems where deleted files are stored
trial
a limited by time restrictions or allowed number of uses version of a program, which allows users to try it out before buying a full license
trojan (trojan horse)
a technique used in a computer crime that involves adding concealed instructions to a computer program so that it will still work but will also perform prohibited duties; in other words, it appears to do something useful but actually does something destructive in the background
troubleshoot
to find and fix faults in a system
troubleshooter (trouble shooter, trouble-shooter)
a person who finds and fixes faults in a system, or provides a service of computer maintenance
troubleshooting
discovering why something does not work effectively and making suggestions about how to improve it
trust rank
a link analysis technique described in a paper by Stanford University and Yahoo! researchers for semi-automatically separating useful webpages from spam
TTS (text to speech)
a system where a computer reads text to the user using a speech synthesizer
tuned
set to operate on the same frequency
Turned-Based Strategy (TBS)
a strategy game where players take turns when playing
Tux
a fat penguin and mascot of Linux, the name comes from the letters used in Torvalds Unix
tweaking
modifying a certain piece of hardware for better performance
twisted-pair (twisted-pair cabling)
a common type of network cable that uses two wires twisted together to reduce interference from external signals
typeface
letters and numbers in a particular design, used in printing or on a computer screen
typesetting
preparation for printing
UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
a set of standards for creating a data address in a TCP/IP message, used to indicate what application the message is supposed to contact and provides the final routing for the data within the receiving system
UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface)
a specification that defines a software interface between an operating system and platform firmware, a replacement for the BIOS
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
the full meaning of the UMTS abbreviation
undo
to restore a file to the condition it was in before the last change was made
unencrypt (decrypt, decipher)
to remove the encryption from a file
unicode
modern standard for text representation; defines each of the letters and symbols used in digital and print media; first known as the Universal Character Set (UCS)
Uniform Resource Locator (Universal Resource Locator, internet address, URL, web address)
the internet address of a webpage
uninterruptible power supply (UPS, uninterruptible power source)
a battery backup system that automatically provides power to a computer when the normal electricity source fails
unique key
a set of attributes, the values of which are guaranteed to be unique for each row in a relation
Unix
a popular multi-user multitasking operating system originally designed for mainframe computers, with a wide variety of existing versions
decompress (unzip, unrar)
to return a computer file to its original size after it has been zipped
update
change that provides the latest version or to perform such a change
upgrade
to add or change components to improve the features or performance of a system
upload
to copy a file from a client computer to a server in a network
upstream
the signal path for receiving communications from a client computer to a server in a network
usage allowance
the amount of data that you are able to upload or download in a given time period; limited by your ISP
USB (Universal Serial Bus)
a connector interface standard for attaching peripheral devices to a computer
Usenet
the internet service that allows users to communicate by means of newsgroups
user interface
the means of communicating between a human being and a computer
user-authentication system (user-authentification system)
a system that identifies users, e.g. using digital certificates
user-friendly
describing interactive systems that are designed to make the user's task as easy as possible by providing feedback
username (login, user name, screen name, screenname, nickname)
the network account name assigned to a particular user
utility (utility program)
a program included with an operating system that can perform useful common routine tasks or housekeeping operations, e.g. formatting disks or copying files
UTP (unshielded twisted pair)
a cable consisting of pairs of wires twisted together and insulated but not provided with a metallic shield
variable
a string of characters used to denote a value stored within a computer which may be changed during execution
VDU (visual display unit)
the screen of a computer terminal or PC
verify
to check for accuracy
Vertical Industry Portal (vortal)
a portal website that provides information and resources for a particular industry, the Internet's way of catering to consumers focused-environment preferences
vertical refresh rate
the number of times per second that an image is written on a TV or computer screen, measured in kiloHerz
VGA (Video Graphics Array)
a standard for colour monitors developed by IBM for their PS/2 range of PCs
video conferencing (videoconferencing)
a form of communication over a network that uses video cameras so that the people taking part can see and hear each other
video game
a game in which the player controls moving pictures on a screen by pressing buttons
video memory
the memory used to store graphics data on a graphics card
virtual machine monitor (VMM)
hostprogram that allows a computer to support multiple and identical execution environments
virtual reality (VR)
environment, real or imagined, which simulates a user's physical presence and environment to allow for user interaction
virtual router
a software-based routing framework that allows the host machine to perform as a typical hardware router over a local area network
virtual storage
when disks are connected to a computer and used as an extension of internal memory in order to increase the capacity of primary storage
virtual computer
simulated enabling the user to experience something without needing its physical presence
virus scanner
a type of antivirus program that searches a system for infected data
virus shield
a program that could detect a virus before the computer is infected
virus signature
certain characteristics of every computer virus that help it become discovered
virus
a program written with the purpose of causing damage or causing a computer to behave in an unusual way
virus-check
to check for viruses
visualisation technology
systems and devices used to create a virtual reality environment
voice clip
a short sound recording of the human voice
voice coil
a device that moves a disk drive actuator arm using electromagnetism, it works more quickly than a stepper motor
voice recognition
a system that can respond to words spoken by a human being
voice synthesis
the generation of a human-sounding voice using electronic circuits
voice synthesizer
an electronic device that generates sounds that represent the human voice
VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol)
a set of standards for enabling phone calls to be made across the Internet
voltmeter
an instrument used to measure voltage
volume
another name for a disk or a partition
VPN (virtual private network)
a network where data is transferred over the Internet using security features preventing unauthorized access
wafer
a thin flat piece of semiconductor crystal used in the fabrication of integrated circuits
wallpaper
the background graphics of the display
WAP (wireless application protocol)
a set of standards for allowing users to send emails and access information including video transmissions from the Internet on a mobile phone
warez
illegally copied computer software which has had its protection codes de-activated
web application framework (WAF)
a software framework designed to support the development of dynamic websites
web crawler
a computer program that browses the World Wide Web and adds new content (or pages) to the search engine index
web developer (web designer, designer, Web programmer)
a person who is employed to create websites
web page (webpage)
a hyperlinked document on the internet that forms a part of a website
web portal (portal)
a site on the web that acts as gateway to other sites
web server
a server computer that stores and provides access to websites
web space
disk storage space on a web server used for storing webpages
webblog (blog)
a discussion or information site published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete entries (posts) displayed in reverse chronological order so the most recent post appears first
webcam
video camera that feeds its images in real time to a computer or computer network, often via USB, ethernet, or Wi-Fi
webcast
a broadcast made on the Internet
webmail
a type of email that is accessed from webpages
webmaster
a person who administers a Web server
web-ready appliances protocol
a set of standards for enabling domestic appliances to be connected to the Web and to communicate with each other
website
a set of related pages on the World Wide Web
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
security protocol for Wi-Fi networks, that is designed to provide a wireless local area network (WLAN) with a level of security and privacy comparable to what is usually expected of a wired LAN
Wide Area Network (WAN)
a computer network that connects separate machines over a wide area, for example in different countries, using telecommunication systems
WiFi (Wireless Fidelity)
a set of standards for radio-based wireless networks
wildcard
a symbol used in computer commands and for searching databases, representing any characters, e.g using an asterisk searching for *ed would find all words ending in ed
window
a rectangular screen area containing a program folder or file in a WIMP system
wipe (wipe a disk)
to delete all the files stored on a disk
wireless network
the interconnection of computers using signals carried through the air (usually radio waves) instead of through connecting cables
wirelessly
using radio signals without the need for connecting wires or cables
WLAN (wireless local area network)
a network that uses radio waves to connect computers in a small area
WML (wireless markup language)
a language similar to HTML used for designing webpages suitable for mobile phones
wordprocessing
the process of typing and editing test using a wordprocessor
wordprocessor (word processor)
a type of computer application program used for typing and editing text documents
workstation
a powerful desktop computer used by power users for work that requires a lot of processing, e.g graphic design
World Wide Web (WWW)
the Internet service used for connecting to multimedia webpages
worm
a program that performs unwanted actions and replicates itself across a network
write-back cache
a buffer storage system where the processor writes changes only to the cache and not to main memory. Cache entries that have changed are flagged as telling the cache controller to write their contents back to main memory before using the space to cache new data
write-through cache
a buffer storage system where the processor writes directly to both the cache and main memory at the same time
WXGA
abbreviation for wide extended graphics array; a standard screen resolution of ( 1024 x 768 ) pixels that is particularly suitable for displaying video films
WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get)
application that converts a visual layout of website into HTML code
X (X windowing, X windowing system)
a windowing system typically used with different versions of Unix
X.25
the International Telegraphic Union packetswitching data communications standard for connecting computers and a public network
XGA
abbreviation for extended graphics array; an IBM display screen standard with a resolution of 1024X768 pixels and up to 65,536 colours
XHTML
a newer formulation of HTML as an extension of XML
XML (extensible markup language)
a metalanguage that allows developers to create their own set of customised tags that identify the meaning and structure of data, used for creating files that are program-independent, platform-independent and able to be used with different languages
XML Schema (XSD, XML Schema Definition)
an alternative for DTD approved as a W3C recommendation, it describes the structure of an XML document
ZMODEM
a protocol for transferring information over the phone lines through your modem