Anatomy and Physiology 2: Part 2
Terms in this set (129)
What are the 3 effector organs of the autonomic nervous system?
smooth muscle, glands, and cardiac muscle
What are the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system?
PNS (parasympathetic) and SNS (sympathetic)
What cranial nerve carries the majority of the parasympathetic nerve fibers of the body?
Why is the parasympathetic nervous system known as the "craniosacral" division of the autonomic nervous system?
Because of its location and outflow of nerves
PNS on pupils:
PNS on heart:
decrease in heart rate
PNS on brochi:
PNS on digestion:
Does the PNS have long or short pre-ganglionic nerve fibers?
What neurotransmitter is secreted from the pre and post ganglionic nerve fibers of the PNS?
What is the name of the chain of sympathetic ganglia connected by branching nerve fibers that runs parallel to the spinal column?
sympathetic chain ganglia
Why is the sympathetic nervous system known as the "thoracolumbar" division of the autonomic nerve system (SNS)?
The location and flow of nerves (T1-L2 level)
SNS on the pupil:
SNS on the heart:
SNS on the bronchi:
SNS on digestion:
Does the SNS have long or short pre-ganglionic nerve fibers?
short; they immediately synapse, but sometimes they go further
What neurotransmitters (primarily) are secreted from the pre ganglionic nerve fibers of the SNS?
What neurotransmitters (primarily) are secreted from the post ganglionic nerve fibers of the SNS?
What hormones are secreted from the adrenal medulla and what functions do they have?
NE and epinephrine are secreted into the bloodstream and to some blood vessels. It constricts the blood vessels and raises blood pressure
What are the two types of cholinergic receptors and what chemicals stimulate them?
muscarinic - muscarine and nicotinic - nicotine
What are the two types of adrenergic receptors?
alpha and beta
What ANS division is fight or flight?
What ANS division is rest and digest?
voluntary motor functions, motivation, foresight, planning, memory, mood, emotion, social judgment, and aggression
hearing, smelling, learning, memory and some aspects of vision and emotion
receives and integrates general sensory information, taste and some visual processing
primary visual cortex
understanding spoken language, taste and sensory information from visceral receptors
a "gateway to the cerebral cortex"; a filtering station for sensory information; plays a key role in relaying information from the cerebellum to the cerebrum, and is involved in memory and emotional functions of the limbic system
hormone section, autonomic effects, thermoregulation, food and water intake, libido, sleep and wake cycles, memory, emotional behavior
secretes melatonin and seratonin
a region of the brain involved with monitoring muscle contractions and motor coordination; evaluation of sensory input; timekeeping center; hearing; planning and scheduling
a brainstem region responsible for ascending and descending tracts; nuclei for cranial nerves V, VI, VII, and VII
a brainstem region responsible for ascending and descending tracts, nuclei for cranial nerves III and IV
medulla oblongata region
a brainstem region responsible for ascending and descending tracts; contains nuclei for cranial nerves IX, X, XI, XII
carry signals upward to the cerebral cortex
enable left and right side to communicate
connect different regions in the same hemisphere of brain
The brain wave pattern associated with normal awake activities and mental activities is the:
what is a homunculus?
Topographical representation of sensory and motor areas in the cerebral cortex. Used to localize lesions (in blood supply) leading to specific deficits.
Lower extremity deficity-> ACA;
a very small human/humanoid creature
Which cranial nerve innervates the face and controls the majority of facial muscles except for muscles of mastication?
Which cranial nerve descends into the thoracic and abdominal cavities and provides a large amount of parasympathetic enervation to the ventral body cavity viscera?
extrinsic eye muscles
Set of six muscles that attach to outer eyeball; move the eyeball
transparent mucous membrane; this part covers the sclera on the anterior surface of the eye
short, coarse hairs that overlie the supraorbital margins of the skull; shade and block perspiration
hairs that extend from free margin of eyelid; touch triggers blinking reflex
eyelids or palpebrae
thin skin-covered folds supported by tarsal plates; protect anterior surface of the eye
levator palpebrae superioris
muscle that raises the upper eyelid
anatomical name for tears
glands that produce tears
anti-bacterial enzyme found in tears
muscle that closes the eye
transparent mucous membrane that produces lubricating mucous; this part lines eyelids
produces and oily secretion that prevents the eyelids from sticking together
Rod or cone: vision in dim light
rod or cone: vision in bright light
rod or cone: color vision
rod or cone: black and white vision
rod or cone: high acuity vision
rod or cones: peripheral vision
pinna and external auditory canal
structures of the external ear
semicircular canals, vestibule, cochlea
regions composing the bony or osseous structures of the inner ear
bony region of the inner ear involved with hearing
saccule and utricle
two membranous labyrinth structures in vestibule that contain maculae.
stapes, malleus, and incus
collectively called the ossicles
type of deafness where there is interference with transmission of the sound waves to the organ of Corti; obstruction by earwax, middle ear infection, tympanic membrane scarring, etc
vestibule and semicircular canals
balance; bony labyrinth regions that contain receptors for the sense of equilibrium and acceleration
pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube
allows pressure in the middle ear to be equalized with atmospheric pressure via its connection to the nasopharynx
eardrum; vibrates as sound waves hit it; transmits the vibrations directly to the ossicles, specifically the malleous
spiral organ (organ of corti)
specific region that allows for hearing; has hair cells, tectorial membrane, basilar membrane
modified sweat glands that secrete a component of ear wax (dead skin cells other component)
receptor region that responds to gravity; reports changes in head position; responsible for sense of static equilibrium, found in the saccule and utricle. it contains otolithic membrane, hair cells and otoliths
connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx
specific receptor region that responds to rotational movements of the head; responsible for sense of dynamic (3D) equilibrium, found in ampulla of the semicircular canals, contains the cupulla and hair cells
transmits the vibration from the stirrup to the fluid of the inner ear
Fluid that bathes the sensory receptors of the inner ear
fluid contained within the osseous labyrinth, which bathes the membranous labyrinth
type of deafness involving damage to a neural structure
inferior opening (closed by the secondary tympanic membrane) between the middle and inner ear that relieves pressure
The 3 tunics of the eye:
fibrous, muscular vascular, neural
sclera and cornea
muscular vascular tunic:
ciliary bodies, ciliary muscles, lens, iris
What muscle stretches the suspensory ligaments that attach to the lens?
Is the lens thin or bulging when the ciliary muscles are relaxed?
Is a "thin or flattened" position of the lens better for near or far vision?
What is the fluid-gel that fills the cavity behind the lens?
What fluid fills the cavity in front of the lens?
What area of the retina has the best visual acuity and the highest concentration of cones? Most light coming through the eye is directed to this area.
Why is there a physiological blind spot in your visual field?
Mylianated axons are coming in, no receptor ends until beyond that; there are no sensory neurons/receptors on optic nerve 2
What are the 5 tastes?
sweet, sour, salty, bitter, umami
sweet is stimulated by:
carbohydrates, sugar molecules
sour is stimulated by:
acids, citric, acetic
bitter is stimulated by:
alkaloids, morphine, nicotine, greens
salty is stimulated by
Umami is stimulated by
glutamine, aspartame (meaty taste)
no taste buds, help sense food texture
weakly developed taste buds degenerate by age 3
a few taste buds at tips and sides of tongue
at rear of tongue in a V, contains up to 1/2 of all taste buds
True or false: molecules that stimulate smell and taste are required to be dissolved in a solution:
What information travels via the dorsal column ascending tract?
proprioception, deep touch, vibration
What information travels in the anterior spinothalamic tract?
light touch, tickle, pain
how many exiting spinal nerves are there from cervical to coccyx?
What are the names of the 31 spinal nerves?
What are the two spinal cord enlargements?
cervical enlargement and lumbar enlargement
Why is the cervical and lumbar spinal cord enlarged?
it is thicker due to large nerve gaps that leave the spinal cord to serve the arms and legs
Describe the thecal sac (dura mater sleeve over the caudal equina)
a membranous sheath that surrounds the spinal cord
Why do we give epidural injections and spinal taps in the caudal equina
this is an area with a lot of cerebrospinal fluid, but there is an epidural space that is separate from the spinal cord, so it is less risky to inject in this area
neurons, dendrites, synapses, neutrophil dense areas; less myelinated
axons, no neuronal cell bodies; more myelinated (both regions contain astrocytes, oligodendrites, and microglia)
What descending tract plays a major role in limb control and voluntary movements?
What two descending tracts are involved in balance and posture?
Lateral and medial reticulospinal
1st order sensory neurons:
info from tissue, muscle or organ - spinal cord or brainstem
2nd order sensory neurons:
carry 1st order info - thalamus
3rd order sensory neurons:
sorts out information in the thalamus - other brain regions
Upper motor neurons:
begin in cerebral cortex and end in the lower motor neurons
Lower motor neurons:
begin in brainstem or spinal cord and end in the target muscle or tissue
What is a mixed nerve?
contains both afferent and efferent neurons
What happens to the spinal nerves after they exit the intervertebral foramen? What 2 nerves does a spinal nerve become?
They are formed from 2 roots, posterior dorsal sensory input and anterior ventral motor input
what spinal nerves comprise the cervical plexus?
what spinal nerves comprise the brachial plexus?
what spinal nerves comprise the lumbar plexus?
what spinal nerves comprise the sacral plexus?
L4, L5, and S1-S4
What is a dermatome
specific area of skin that conveys input into a spinal nerve
What are the 5 components of a reflex
receptor; sensory neuron, afferent; interneuron; motor neuron, efferent; effector organ
what is found in posterior horn areas of spinal cord
first order neurons
What is found in tract areas of spinal cord
axons and second order neurons
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