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After studying this chapter, you will be able to 1. Describe the three major tasks in crafting a communication strategy and identify four important legal aspects of marketing communication 2. Identify the major types of advertising, the most common advertising appeals, and the most important advertising media 3. Explain how direct marketing differs from advertising and identify the major forms of direct media 4 Describe consultative selling and explain the personal- selling process 5. Define sal…

Approach to communication based on interactive social media and conversational communication styles

social communication model

The new social model of customer communication differs from the conventional promotion model in a number of significant ways.

The Social Model of Customer Communication

The single most important idea an advertiser hopes to convey to the target audience about its products or the company

Core Message

Blend of communication vehicles— advertising, direct marketing, personal selling, sales promotion, social media, and public relations— that a company uses to reach current and potential customers

communication mix

Promotional strategy that focuses on intermediaries, motivating them to promote or push products toward end users

push strategy

Promotional strategy that stimulates consumer demand via advertising and other communication efforts, thereby creating a pull effect through the channel

pull strategy

Strategy of coordinating and integrating communication and promotion efforts with customers to ensure greater efficiency and effectiveness

integrated marketing communications ( IMC)

To maximize efficiency and consis-tency, companies need to integrate their customer communication efforts. However, customers also inte-grate messages on the receiving end— including messages that might contradict messages from the company.

Message Integration in Customer Communication

The delivery of announcements and promotional messages via time or space purchased in various media


Advertising that promotes specific goods and services

product advertising

Advertising technique in which two or more products are explicitly compared

comparative advertising

Advertising that seeks to create goodwill and to build a desired image for a company, rather than to promote specific products

institutional advertising

Advertising that presents a company's opinions on public issues such as education or health care

advocacy advertising

Creative tactic designed to capture the audience's attention and promote preference for the product or company being advertised

advertising appeal

Communications channels, such as newspapers, radio, television, and the World Wide Web

advertising media

Combination of print, broadcast, online, and other media used for an advertising campaign

media mix

The paid display or use of products in television shows, movies, and video games

product placement

Direct communication other than personal sales contacts designed to stimulate a measurable response

direct marketing

Computer file that contains contact histories, purchase records, and profiles of each buyer or potential buyer

customer database

Printed materials addressed to individual consumers, households, or business contacts

direct mail

Automated presentation of ads that are related to either the results of an online search or the content being displayed on other webpages

search engine marketing

The use of television commercials and longer- format infomercials that are designed to stimulate an immediate purchase response from viewers

direct response television

One-on-one interaction between a salesperson and a prospective buyer

personal selling

Approach in which the salesperson acts as a consultant and advisor to help customers find the best solutions to their personal or business needs

consultative selling

Process of finding and qualifying potential customers


The Personal-Selling Process

The personal-selling process can involve up to seven steps, starting with prospecting for sales leads and ending with following up after the sale has been closed.

Point at which a sale is completed


Wide range of events and activities designed to promote a brand or stimulate interest in a product

sales promotion

Certificates that offer discounts on particular items and are redeemed at the time of purchase


Partial reimbursement of price, offered as a purchase incentive


Advertising or other display materials set up at retail locations to promote products to potential customers as they are making their purchase decisions

point-of-purchase ( POP) display

Free or bargain-priced items offered to encourage consumers to buy a product


Advertising that appears on various items such as coffee mugs, pens, and calendars, designed to help keep a company's name in front of customers

specialty advertising

Sales- promotion efforts aimed at inducing distributors or retailers to push a producer's products

trade promotions

Discounts or other financial considerations offered by producers to wholesalers and retailers

trade allowances

Communication vehicles such as blogs, user- contributed content sites, and social booking sites, in which customers and other members of the public can participate

social media

Communication among customers and other parties, transmitting information about companies and products through personal conversations

word of mouth

Approach to customer communication in which companies initiate and facilitate conversations in a networked community of potential buyers and other interested parties

conversation marketing

Formal or informal groups of people united by their interest in and ownership of particular products

brand communities

Nonsales communication that businesses have with their various audiences ( includes both communication with the general public and press relations)

public relations

Brief statement or video program released to the press announcing new products, management changes, sales performance, and other potential news items; also called a news release

press release

In-person or online gathering of media representatives at which companies announce new information; also called a news conference

press conference

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