Anatomy Chapter 22

the __________ zone includes the alveoli, while the __________ zone includes the trachea
a)conducting; respiratory
b)transport; ventilation
c)respiratory; conducting
d)ventilation; transport
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how is it possible to remove a section of lung without damaging neighboring sections a)the bronchopulmonary segments are separated from each other by connective tissue septa b)surgeons cauterize any freshly cut portion of the lung to seal it c)lungs are actually comprised of multiple separate structures each served by its own bronchus d)it isnt possible to perform this type of surgery on the lungsa)the bronchopulmonary segments are separated from each other by connective tissue septathe pressure in the alveoli is known as a)intrapulmonary pressure b)intrapleutral pressure c)transpulmonary pressure d)atmospheric pressurea)intrapulmonary pressureif transpulmonary pressure were to suddenly decrease, predict the response by the lungs a)the lungs would not recoil and air would remain trapped in them b)the lungs would adhere to the parietal pleura and would crumple like an accordion c)the lungs would immediately collapse d)the lungs would remain unchangedc)the lungs would immediately collapse__________is caused by a transpulmonary pressure greater than zero a)a pneumothorax b)inspiration c)apnea d)hyperpneaa)a pneumothoraxair moves into the lungs during inspiration due to the force of a)the diaphragm b)the abdominal muscles c)atmospheric pressure d)the external intercostal musclesc)atmospheric pressureduring an asthma attack, bronchioles become severely__________. taking epinephrine causes them to__________ a)constricted; dilate b)dilated; constrict c)mucus-filled; empty of mucus d)both a and ca)constricted; dilateinfant respiratory distress syndrome occurs because premature infants lack the ability to produce__________, which _________ a)mucus; traps bacteria b)cilia; clear mucus from the trachea c)surafactant; lowers surface tension d)alveoli; causes them to be hypoxicc)surfactant; lowers surface tensionthe typical volume of air involved in alveolar ventilation is __________mL a)150 b)350 c)500 d)4800B)350which of the following is true a)chronic bronchitis is a restrictive disease b)tuberculosis is an obstructive pulmonary disease c)TLC increases for restrictive diseases d)RV increases with obstructive diseasesd)RV increases with obstructive diseaseseven the most forceful exhalation leaves air in the lungs; this is called the__________ and is needed to __________ a)tidal volume; acquire adequate O2 b)vital capacity; remove adequate CO2 c)functional residual capacity; keep alveoli patent d)residual volume; keep alveoli patentd)residual volume; keep alveoli patenttwo gases contribute to 99% of the total atmospheric pressure, they are a)CO2 and 02 b)N2 and O2 c)CO2 and H2O vapor d)N2 and CO2b)N2 and O2the pressure exerted by each gas in a mixture is proportional to its percentage. this is a)Dalton's law of partial pressures b)Boyle's law of partial pressures c)Henry's law of gas percentages d)the law of gas proportionalitya)Dalton's law of partial pressureswhy is the rate of CO2 exchange roughly equivalent to that of O2 despite its less steep pressure gradient a)CO2 diffuses much more rapidly out of the cells b)CO2 binds to O2 and moves across the respiratory membrane simultaneously c)CO2 is more soluble in water than is O2 d)CO2 is actively transported into the alveolic)CO2 is more solublein water than is O2hemoglobin molecules are fully saturated when bound to__________ molecule(s) of O2 a)one b)two c)three d)fourd)fourwhy is it possible to deliver more O2 to vigorously working cells without increasing respiration rate or cardiac output a)it isnt; a small decrease in PO2 has very little effect on hemoglobin unloading b)because one molecule of O2 is bound to hemoglobin, the other molecules bind much more rapidly c)because between a PO2 of zero and a PO2 of 40, hemoglobin saturation changes very rapidly and a greater degree of unloading will occur with even small changes in PO2 d) because CO2 released from the vigorously working cells enhances O2 binding to hemoglobinc) because between a PO2 of zero and a PO2 of 40, hemoglobin saturation changes very rapidly and a greater degree of unloading will occur with even small changes in PO2the Bohr effect describes a)a shift to the left in the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve b)enhanced cooperation of oxygen binding to hemoglobin in the lungs c)a shift to the right in the oxygen- hemoglobin dissociation curve d)the conformational structures of hemoglobin as it picks up oxygen in the lungsc)a shift to the right in the oxygen- hemoglobin dissociation curvered blood cells contain the enzyme__________ which catalyzes the formation of carbonic acid a)carbonic anhydrase b)carbon dioxide acidase c)oxidase d)catalasea)carbonic anhydrasethe chloride shift occurs in red blood cells to: a)provide chlorine to the enzyme carbonic anhydrase b)counterbalance the exodus of bicarbonate ions from red blood cells c)counterbalance the exodus of H+ from red blood cells d)convert chloride ions to bicarbonate ionsb)counterbalance the exodus of bicarbonate ions from red blood cellsthe __________ is responsible for setting the basic rhythm of breathing a)VRG b)DRG c)pontine respiratory group d)ponsa)VRG___________ is the most potent chemical influencing respiration a)O2 b)N c)H2O d)CO2d)CO2__________is produced by the ___________ in response to low blood oxygen levels a)growth hormone; pituitary gland b)hematopoietin; bone marrow c)erythropoietin; kidneys d)hematopoietin; lungsc)erythropoietin; kidneysloss of lung elasticity and destruction of alveolar walls is termed a)asthma b)emphysema c)chronic bronchitis d)dyspneab)emphysemaair passing from the pharynx to the trachea must pass through the a)nasal cavity b)bronchi c)larynx d)diaphragmc)larynxthis structure prevents food from entering the airway a)vestibular fold b)urula c)laryngopharynx d)epiglottisd)epiglottisthe "Adam's apple" is located on which cartilage a)cricoid cartilage b)thyroid cartilage c)arytenoid cartilage d)corniculate cartilageb)thyroid cartilagewhich of the following delivers air to the lobes of the lungs a)primary bronchi b)secondary bronchi c)tertiary bronchi d)terminal bronchiolesb)secondary bronchiall of the following are part of the conduction zone except a)main bronchi b)respiratory bronchioles c)segmental bronchioles d)terminal bronchiolesb)respiratory bronchiolesan increase in the volume of a container filled with air would have what effect on the pressure of the container a)increase in the pressure b)decrease in the pressure c)no effect d)a temporary effectb)decrease in the pressuresurfactant decreases the __________ in the alveoli a)surface tension b)pressure c)compliance d)volumea)surface tensionthe amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inspiration is termed the a)vital capacity b)expiratory reserve volume c)inspiratory reserve volume d)inspiratiry capacityc)inspiratory reserve volumewhich of the following statements is false in regard to inspiration a)the rib cage is elevated b)the diaphragm is relaxed c)volume in the thoracic cavity has increased d)intrapulmonary pressure has decreasedb)the diaphragm is relaxedwhich of the following is responsible for keeping the lungs from collapsing a)surfactant b)intrapulmonary pressure c)transpulmonary pressure d)intrapleural pressurec)transpulmonary pressurewhich is not one of the three main factors that influences external respiration a)partial pressure gradients b)ventilation-perfusion coupling c)temperature of the respiratory membrane d)gas solubilitiesc)temperature of the respiratory membranethe pressure exerted by each type of gas in a gas mixture is the__________ of that gas a)partial force b)partial percentage c)partial volume d)partial pressured)partial pressuredivers developing the "bends" is a clincial application of which gas law a)Boyle's b)Dalton's c)Frank-Starling d)Henry'sd)Henry'sthe rate of oxygen diffusion across the respiratory membrane depends upon all of the following except a)the thickness of the respiratory membrane b)partial pressure of oxygen in the alveoli c)partial pressure of oxygen in the blood d)partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the bloodd)partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the bloodlow Po2 and high Pco2 in the alveoli will cause a)constriction of pulmonary capillaries and bronchioles b)dilation of pulmonary capillaries and bronchioles c)constriction of pulmonary capillaries and dilation of bronchioles d)dilation of pulmonary capillaries and constriction of bronchiolesc)constriction of pulmonary capillaries and dilation of bronchiolesthe majority of carbon dioxide is transported a)bound to hemoglobin b)dissolved in the plasma c)as bicarbonate ions d)as carbonic acidc)as bicarbonate ionshemoglobin has the highest affinity for which of the following a)O2 b)CO2 c)CO d)H+c)COin the tissues, hemoglobin will release some oxygen and bind to a)carbonic acid b)hydrogen ions c)chloride ions d)bicarbonate ionsb)hydrogen ionsthe chloride shift refers to a)chloride ions binding to hemoglobin b)chloride ions moving into or out of the red blood cell c)chloride ions combining with bicarbonate ions d)chloride ions being released from hemoglobinb)chloride ions moving into or out of the red blood cellwhich of the following will increase hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen a)a decrease in pH b)an increase in Pco2 c)an increase in temperature d)the presence of some O2 already bound to the hemoglobind)the presence of some O2 already bound to the hemoglobinwhich respiratory control center is not located in the medulla oblongata a)DRG b)VRG c)PRG d)SUVc)PRGa decrease in pH will have what effect on the respiration rate a)decrease b)increase c)no effect d)no effect unless lung damage is presentb)increasethe inflation reflex depends upon stimulation of which type of recceptor a)nociceptors b)chemoreceptors c)mechanoreceptors d)thermoreceptorsc)mechanoreceptorsapneustic breathing occurs as a result of damage to which respiratory center a)dorsal respiratory group b)ventral respiratory group c)pontine respiratory group d)eupnea respiratory groupc)pontine respiratory groupwhich of the following has the greatest effect on respiration rate a)Po2 b)Pco2 c)Pn2 d)both a and b have an equal effectb)Pco2when holding our breath for a long time we get the urge to breathe because of a)a decrease in N2 b)a decrease in O2 c)an increase in CO2 d)an increase in pHc)an increase in CO2