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Chapter 45 AP Biology
Terms in this set (27)
chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, secreted into extracellular fluid, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues
cells that have receptors for a particular hormone
Process where specialized cells release hormone molecules into vessels of the circulatory system, by which they travel to target cells in other parts of the body; used to maintain homeostasis, regulate responses to external stimuli, and growth and development.
A process where secreted molecules diffuse locally and trigger a response in neighboring cells.
Process where secreted molecules diffuse locally and trigger a response in the cells that secreted them.
chemical messengers that diffuse across the synaptic gaps between neurons and bind to target cells
produced and released by neurons in the brain to regulate endocrine signaling and are delivered to organs and tissues through the bloodstream
A series of molecular changes that converts a signal on a target cell's surface to a specific response inside the cell.
adrenaline; activates a sympathetic nervous system by making the heart beat faster, stopping digestion, enlarging pupils, sending sugar into the bloodstream, preparing a blood clot faster
Glands of the endocrine system that release hormones into the bloodstream; thyroid
a mechanism of response in which a stimulus initiates reactions that reduce/dampens the stimulus
Feedback that tends to magnify a process or increase its output.
The area of the brain that secretes substances that influence pituitary and other gland function and is involved in the control of body temperature, hunger, thirst, and other processes that regulate body equilibrium.
The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands. Found under hypothalamus.
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Hormone produced by the neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus that stimulates water reabsorption from kidney tubule cells into the blood and vasoconstriction of arterioles; also plays role in social behavior
anterior pituitary; stimulates milk production and secretion
regulates metabolism, blood pressure, heart rate, muscle tone, etc.
endocrine gland that surrounds the trachea in the neck; produces hormones such as thyroid hormone
Growth Hormone (GH)
regulates the growth of the body; main target includes liver, which produces growth factors that stimulate bone growth, thus allowing animal to grow.
small pea-like organs that regulate calcium and phosphate balance in blood, bones, and other tissues
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
increases blood Ca2+ involved in bone maintenance
a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress.
Hormone that triggers brain arousal and other functions like mood, hunger, and sleep
Inhibits the breakdown of bone; causes a decrease in blood calcium concentration; opposite effect of PTH
Female sex hormone; produces estradiol; maintains female reproductive system
A hormone manufactured by the pineal gland that produces sleepiness; regulates functions related to light and the seasons
A small gland near the center of the brain that secretes melatonin
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