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Mechanical work equation for the heart

Work = pressure x stroke volume

Law of Laplace [sphere]

P = 2T / R or
T = (P x R) / 2
(pressure, tension, radius)

MAP of tall man standing (head, heart, feet)

Head: 52 mmHg
Heart: 90 mmHg
Feet: 203 mmHg

Relationship of MAP, CO, PVR


Width of BP cuff compared to diameter of the arm

Width should be 20% larger than the diameter of the arm.

Modern BP cuffs are considered what & how do they work

-As BP decreases the needle oscillates (integrated electronics)

Drawbacks of automated oscillometers to measure BP (x2)

-2 min minimum interval
-Fails at BP < 50 mmHg

Identify the BP measuring device & explain how it works

Penaz technique
-Uses LED plethysmography at fingertip & inflatable cuff to measure continuous BP at fingertip

Rate NS infuses in an arterial line

4 mL/hr

Frequency range for invasive BP monitor

0 to 40 Hz

Placing art line in brachial artery

a BAD idea

Resonance in art lines & how to prevent

Always occurs due to the inertia of the fluid column but as long as it is >40 Hz it does not interfere with the quality of the reading.
-Kept above 40 Hz by using stiff, short tubing.

Dampening in art lines & impact

Occurs with an air bubble or clot (they absorb the higher frequencies)
-usually negligible to MAP reading

PA catheter waveforms

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