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Motivation and emotion Chapter 9 Ap psych test
Terms in this set (69)
Motivation & Emotion
specific need or desire, such as hunger, thirst, or achievement that prompts goal-directed behavior.
Feeling, such as fear, joy, or surprise, that underlies behavior.
inborn, goal - directed behavior that is characteristic of an entire species. Before 1920: Instincts were believed to cause human behavior.
The Baldwin Effect
1896 - the result of the interaction of evolution with learning by individual animals over their lifetime. "Individual learning can enhance evolutionary learning at the species level."
Post 1920's Human behavior is not easily explained by instincts because:
1) Most important human behavior is learned.
2) Human behavior is rarely inflexible.
a state of tension or arousal caused by bodily needs that motivate behavior (food, water, etc.)
Drive Reduction Theory
motivated behavior is an attempt to reduce a drive & return the body to homeostasis (balance & stability) Ex. When hungry, we eat. When tired, we sleep.
Two Basic Parts: Primary Drive and Secondary Drive
unlearned drives based on a physiological state.
a learned drive, not based on a physiological state.
People are motivated to seek an optimal level of arousal for any given moment.
Arousal runs from extreme alertness to sleep.
People may want to increase arousal (boredom) or decrease arousal (sleep).
there is an optimal level of arousal for best performance on any task.
The more complex the task, the lower the level of arousal that can be tolerated without interfering with performance. Ex. brain surgery vs. pulling weeds.
external stimuli that prompt goal - directed behavior.
Aroma of food when not hungry, advertisements lead to purchase.
trophies, cash, etc.
Motivation for a behavior is the behavior itself.
Behavior is performed to obtain a reward or avoid a punishment.
Biological Factors of Motivation (1-3)
Hunger, Thirst, Sex
regulated by regions in the hypothalamus
a) triggers onset of eating
b) contains the satiety center (on/off switch - full/not full)
c) controls the drive for specific foods
The brain monitors glucose, fats, carbs & insulin in the blood, changes in these levels signal the need for food. (Sluggish after a load of carbs)
(Cultural & Environmental Factors and Eating disorders)
Cultural & Environmental Factors
Response are controlled by learning & social conditions (time of day)
Culture influences what we eat & how much
Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia, Obesity, and Muscular Dysmorphia,
is associated with intense fear of weight gain & distorted body image. Typically in females who had a troubled childhood adolescence
refusal to maintain normal weight
for women, absence of at least three consecutive menstrual cycles
characterized by binge eating followed by purging
must occur at least twice a week for three months
body shape & image influence self image
increased body weight caused by accumulation of fat
50% increase in US - 66% increase in children
Risk of heart disease: hypertension, diabetes, sleep apnea
may be inherited
obsessive concern with one's muscle size, esp. among young males.
internal & external cues trigger thirst drives
regulates monitor level of fluids inside cells, prompts activation of thirst drive
monitors amount of fluid outside of cells, fluid drops = less blood flows to the kidneys, which in turn releases substances into blood stream that triggers thirst drives
fluids in cells, advertisements, & weather
What motivates humans?
What is attractive?
Over time has "attractiveness" changed/evolved?
Are the changes fad?
What is constant throughout time?
- primary drive that motivates reproductive behavior.
like other drives it can be turned on/off/ by biological conditions and environmental conditions/cues.
unlike other drives, it is not vital to survival, only continuation of the species.
unlike lower animals, humans do not rely on hormone levels, thus humans are also ready for sex at any time
Biological Factors of Sex
Internal Stimuli and External Stimuli,
Testosterone, Estrogen & Progesterone, Oxytocin and Vasopressin, The Brain
primary male sex hormone, important in development of male & female early development
a) is not very important in regulating sexual activity in humans
ex. absence of testosterone doesn't get rid of sex drive
Estrogen & Progesterone
regulates sexual motivation in females
Oxytocin and Vasopressin
regulate male and female sexual motivation
the limbic system primary location of sexual excitement. Amygdala/ Hippocampus
evaluates emotional content of the sexual situations
Pheromones and Other Stimuli
scents secreted can produce sexual readiness in animals. Limited evidence suggests it in humans too.
sight, smell of perfume/ cologne, music, aphrodisiacs etc.
Human sexual response
is much more dependent on experience and learning than biology. Amygdala again (plays a role in arousal bc of its handling of fear and safety)
ex. The human response is affected by SOCIAL experience, sexual experience, nutrition, emotions, & age
(males and females)
are aroused by visual cues, aroused faster, & +50% think about sex daily
respond at the same level to touch, aroused slower, 19% think about sex daily
Masters & Johnson
1957 - 1996 studied sexuality, treatments of disorders, & dysfunction. Important research on - the Human sexual response cycle (1-4)
(Excitment, Plateau, orgasm, and resolution)
initial arousal, stimulation, increased HR, respiration & vocalization
increased arousal, sensitivity, contractions, lubrication.
more contractions, extreme sensations of pleasure, ejaculaion, results vary in woman.
relaxation, post orgasm - most men unable orgasm again, although women can multiple times.
time to reach orgasm - 15 mins
males claim 6 partners, 25% cheat
females claim 2 partners, 15% cheat
refers to one's sexual interest. Debates as Nature vs. Nurture, Heterosexual, Homosexual, Bisexual
Stimulus Motives, Exploration & Curiosity, Manipulation & Contact, Aggression, Achievement, Affiliation, Maslow's Hierarchy of Motives (Needs), Self Actualization
unlearned motives such as curiosity or contact that prompts us to explore or change the world around us.
Exploration & Curiosity
sparked by the new & unknown, linked to cognition
Manipulation & Contact
the need for contact & comfort (see Harlow)
behavior aimed at doing harm to others, motive to behave aggressively. It may be innate, although learning plays a role.
motivation to excel at a task
motivation to be with others
Maslow's Hierarchy of Motives (Needs)
a list of human needs that must be satisfied in order to achieve
the drive to realize one's full potential
Essential to survival & a major source of enrichment
linked to variations in immune functions & disease
plays a role in how successful we are
Plutchik's EIght Emotions
Emotions were revised because...
Plutchik's model applied only to English speakers.
Happiness Surprise Sadness Fear Disgust Anger
Theories of Emotion
James Lange Theory, Cannon Bard Theory, Cognitive Theory ,
James Lange Theory
- Environmental stimuli elicit physiological changes that we interpret as emotions. Emotions are caused by bodily response by an event, not perception of event. So, increased HR & resp. causes the emotion.
Cannon Bard Theory
Environmental stimuli elicit emotions and bodily responses simultaneously. The brain "knows" which emotion we are experiencing bc the experience of experience of emotion and bodily response occur at same time.
Environment gives us clues that help us interpret physiological reactions.
Nonverbal Communication of Emotion
Voice Quality Personal Space Explicit Acts
Facial Expression Body Language
Gender & Emotion
Men & women feel emotions equally, but express them differently.
They also experience different emotions in the same situation.
Men tend to direct their anger outward, women inward.
Women are more skilled at understanding nonverbal emotion.
Culture & Emotion
expression is influenced by cultural norms.
some emotional displays are universal
display rules how, when, & why expressions of emotion are appropriate
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