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Social Research Methods Chapter 14 Terms
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Terms in this set (42)
quantitative data analysis
the process by which substantive findings are drawn from numerical data
univariate analysis
an analysis of a single variable
bivariate analysis
an analysis of the relationship between two variables
distribution
the set of different values of a variable that have been observed and how common each value is
frequency distribution
a presentation of the possible values of a variable along with the number of observations for each value that was observed
frequency
the number of observations with a particular value of a variable
relative frequency
the percentage of observations with a particular value
relative distribution
a presentation of the possible values of a variable along with the percentage of observations for each value that was observed. Also referred to as a percentage distribution
categorical variable
a variable that has a finite set of possible values that are fixed and distinct from one another with unknown differences between them
continuous variable
a variable that could have an infinite set of possible values that exist on a continuum from low to high with meaningful and identifiable differences between them
histogram
a visual representation of data that depicts the frequency distribution of a continuous variable
summary statistic
a single value that summarizes some feature of a distribution
measure of central tendency
a summary statistic that refers to the center of a distribution
mean
the sum of all of a variable's values divided by the number of observations
median
the middle value observed when observations are ranked from the lowest to the highest
skewed
an unbalanced distribution
ratio variable
a variable with a continuum of values with meaningful distances (or intervals) between them and a true zero
outlier
an extreme value
dichotomous variable
a variable with only two categories
ordinal variable
a variable with categories that can be ordered in some way but have unknowable differences between them
nominal variable
a variable with states or statuses that are parallel and cannot be ranked or ordered
mode
the most common value of a variable
range
the differences between maximum and minimum values of a distribution
standard deviation
the average distance between the value of each observation and the overall mean
percentiles
values at or below which a certain percentage of values fall
margin of error
the amount of uncertainty in an estimate; equal to the distance between the estimate and the boundary of the confidence interval
confidence interval
a range of possible estimates in which researchers can have a specific degree of confidence; includes the population parameter
cross-tabulation
a presentation of distributions between two or more variables as a table
cells
the intersections of the rows and columns in a cross-tabulation
marginal frequency
the overall frequency distributions of a focal measure that do not take into account differences among the subgroups; the totals in the bottom row and rightmost column of a table. Also called marginals
cell percentages
for each cell in a table, the percentage of all observations that are represented by that cell
column percentages
for each cell in a table, the percentage of observations in that column of the table that are represented by that cell
row percentages
for each cell in a table, the percentage of observations in that row of the table that are represented by that cell
conditional mean
a statistic that is calculated only for observations that meet a particular condition rather than calculated for every observation
error bars
a way of indicating the confidence interval for a statistic presented in a graph
line graph
a graph in which a line indicates how the conditional mean of the outcome changes as values of an explanatory variable change
bivariate regression analysis
a summary of a relationship between variables that describes how the conditional mean of the dependent variable changes as the independent variable changes
regression coefficient
a value that indicates the expected change in our outcome that is associated with a one-unit increase in our explanatory variable
population trends
analyses showing how some characteristic of a population changes or remains stable over time
cohort replacement
when the younger people who enter a survey population by becoming adults have systematically different attitudes from older adults who exit a population by death
age effect
how peoples' opinions or other characteristics change as they get older
period effect
a broad pattern in which all ages in a population exhibit a tendency toward change over the same historical period
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