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What is the advantages to a SAB or epidural for a TURP Procedure
Decreased Blood loss
Decreased Post-op VTE
Easier to ID early signs of TURP Syndrome
Complications of TURP
Septicemia (from colonized infected prostate)
What is TURP Syndrome
Occurs with absorption of 2L or more of irrigation fluid via venous sinuses in prostate.
Results in Circ. Overload:
--Irrigation fluid solute toxicity
Symptoms associated with Hyponatremia
Na: 125mEq/L No symptoms
--120 mEq/L Restlessness/ confusion/ wide QRS
--115 mEq/L Somnolence/ nausea//wide QRS/ ST elev
--110 mEq/L Seizures
What are the S/Sx to watch for with TURP Syndrome
-CHF/ Pulm Edem
Treatment for TURP syndrome
*Eliminate Absorbed Water: Loop diuretics
*Maintain oxygenation and perfusion
*Hypertonic Saline(3% or 5%) @ 100cc/hr max
What type of irrigationg solution is most commonly used in TURPS
Solution should be slightly hypotonic and non-electrolyte fluids....
--Cytal: mix of sorbital 2.7% and mannitol 0.54%
(less common: Sorbital 3.3%, Mannitol 3%, Dextrose, urea)
What are the factors that affect solution absorption during a TURP
1. type of solution
2. duration of the resection
3. height of irrigation solution(60cm above is max)
4. pressure of solution administered
5. blood loss
What are the symptoms of glycine Toxicity from TURP
-circulatory depression and CNS toxicity
-Inhibitory neurotransmitter in CNS (rare transient blindness)
What are the causes of Bladder perforation of TURP
1. Cutting loop or knife electorde
2. tip of resectoscope
3. Overdistention of the bladder with irrigation fluid.
****Fluid goes in but does not come out!
Symptoms of bladder perforation during TURP
Awake pt: N/V, Diaphoresis, pallor, abd pain
Large perforations can cause sudden unexplained hemodynamic changes.
What are the advantages to using an Indigo Laser TURP
Laser "heats" tissue and it is reabsorbed
Used with ambulatory surgery center.
Where can stones cause obstruction in the GU system
1. Nephrolithiasis (Kidney)
2. Ureterolithiasis (ureters)
3. Vesical Stone (Bladder)
4. Renal Pelvis Stones (painless)
What are the most common renal Calculi types
Calcium Stones (most common)
-also calcium oxalate(80%)
- calcium phosphate, uric acid
What disease states cause increased risks for renal calculi
Renal Tubular acidosis
What dietary items decrease risk of renal calculi
Dietary calcium (inhibits intestinal absorption of oxalate)
Coffee and Beer
2.5-3Liter of fluids a day
(Grapefruit juice increases risk)
What are the 4 types of Renal Calculi
1. Calcium Oxalate (80%)
2. Struvite (staghorn)(mag) (15%)
3. Uric Acid (6%)
4. Cystine (2%)
What are the s/sx of Renal calculi
1. Flank Pain
2. "Writhing pain" ("motionless"pain is symp of abd patho)
3. Infections and hematuria
Drug of choice for pain assoc with renal calculi
Toradol (decreases PG2 which is the mediating hormone of renal pain)
Surgical management of Renal calculi
Extracorporal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL)
Advantages of Lithotripsy
Pulverizes upper urinary tract stones by means of a shock wave
what is considered the gold standard of Lithotripsy
- utilizes a bath of water as a medium to deliver the shock wave
-Must be able to visualize stone in upper urinary tract system
What is the gantry in lithotripsy
The hydraulic chair
--positions pt in semifowlers position, immerses pt in water, two fluoroscop units positioned above.
What are the 4 primary components of Lithotripsy
1. Energy source (spark plug)
2. focusing Device (ellipsoidal reflector)
3. Coupling medium (water)
4. Stone localization system (fluoroscopy)
Hydrostatic force of water displacing Blood during lithotripsy causes what physiological changes
Increased Venous Return, BP, PCWP, RAP
Water up to clavicles can Inc CVP by 10-14 cmH20
Increase in pulm cap blood flow, producing V/Q abnoormalities.
What offsets the hydrostatic pressures normalizing the physiological changes during lithotripsy
1. Vasodilation and hypotension due to anesthesia
2. Warm water
3. Semi-fowler position
Why do dysrhythmias occur in healthy normal patients during immersion and out of bath during lithotripsy
Rapid inc and dec in preload causing acute changes in RA and RV wall tensions.
-Inc intrathoracic pressure
- inc intraabdominal pressure
- inc risk of aspiration
Why is timing of lithotripsy important
Shock waves should be synced with ekg. Must be given during absolute refractory period-- (20msec after R wave thereby reducing dysrhthmias)
what are some of the complications of lithotripsy
Dysrythmias (pacer? AICD?)
Drowning, electrocution, infection
Renal parenchymal damage
Absolute contraindications to Lithotripsy
- Untreated coagulopathies
- abdominally placed pacemakers
- obstruction distal to renal calculi
- Morbid Obesity (>278#)
- AAA > 6cm
Relative contraindications to Lithotripsy
- Metal Instrumentation in lumbar region
- Hemangioma in vertebral canal
- Untreated UTI
Advantages to a regional anesthesia for Lithotripsy
Awake patient, intact airway reflexes, can move arms making immersion and emmersion easier.
(disadvantage: puncture site is under water)
Advantages of General anesthesia with Lithotripsy
Controlled breathing- HFJV causes very little stone movement
Induction time is short
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