KINE 3650 Exam 3 Ch. 9
Terms in this set (59)
changes in skill progression is called
the single most important factor leading to the acquisition of motor skill is
motor learning is quite
In general, __________________ suggests that what you learn depends largely on what you practice.
specificity of learning
Practicing in a particular environment or workspace often leads to __________ performance mainly in that workplace
better (I.e. home court advantage)
The _______________ results from performance during specific types of practice becomes part of the learned representation for skill.
sensory feedback (I.e. hitting a tennis ball with a racquet have an auditory sweet spot)
While an important goal of practice is to facilitate transfer (I.e. performance enhancement for unpracticed situations or contexts), it is important to recognize that _________________ is the dominant characteristic.
specificity of learning
The learner who attempts to perform as well as possible in practice tends to be ____________ from modifying movements from attempt to attempt.
inhibited (because is not experimenting to learn, no longer channeling their degrees of freedom)
Providing both _____________ & _______________ during practice can help overcome the detriment to learning.
practice sessions and test sessions
instruct the learners simply to avoid repeating what they did earlier; tell learner to try new styles of movement control to discover some more effective pattern of action; performance quality is not critical; only goal is to discover some new way to execute the skill that will be more effective in the long term
learner is to perform as well as possible, using the best estimate gained from the practice session for the most proficient performance; evaluating progress
A major goal of practice is effective performance, which can be thought of as developing the ____________ to perform some skill on future demand.
5 benefits of practice:
improved capability to perform some skill on future demand
improved perceptual skills
improved attention (attentional resource allocation through reduced capacity demands and reduced effector competition
improved motor programs
improved error detection
a cognitive leap from these bits of information (1-7) and now uniting or unifying them into meaningful units/representations
specifically designed to consider perceptual-motor learning placing heavy emphasis on how the cognitive processes invested in motor performance change as a function of practice
stages of learning from a combined motor control and biomechanical perspective
3 Fitts' stages:
Stage 1: Cognitive Stage
Stage 2: Fixation Stage
Stage 3: Autonomous Stage
The dominant questions concern goal identification performance evaluation, what to do, and when to do it.
Verbal and cognitive abilities dominated, and verbalizable information is useful.
Gains in proficiency in this stage are very rapid and large, indicating that more effective strategies for performance are being discovered
Fitts' Stage 1: Cognitive Stage
o The learner's focus shifts to organizing more effective movement patterns.
o In skills requiring quick movements, such as a tennis stroke, the learner begins to build a motor program to accomplish the movement requirements.
o In slower movements, such as balancing in gymnastics, the learner constructs ways to use movement-produced feedback.
o Feedback based is important in this stage.
o Inconsistency gradually decreases - closed-skill movements BEGIN to be more stereotypic and those open-skill movements become more adaptable.
♣ Begins!! Does not mean IT IS stereotypical
o Enhanced movement efficiency reduces energy costs, and self-talk becomes less important for performance.
o Learners begin to monitor their own feedback and detect their errors.
Fitts' Stage 2: Fixation Stage
o It is usually associated with the attainment of expert performance.
o The decreased attention demanded by both perceptual and motor processes frees the individual to perform simultaneous higher-order cognitive activities.
♣ Allocate their attentional resources to other type of problems
Self-confidence increases and the capability to detect and correct one's own errors becomes more fine-tuned.
Fitts' Stage 3: Autonomous Stage
3 Bernstein's Stages:
Stage 1: Reduce Degrees of Freedom
Stage 2: Release Degrees of Freedom
Stage 3: Exploit Passive Dynamics
o The initial problem facing the learner is what to do with all of the possible degrees of freedom of movement that are available for the body.
♣ Ankle degrees of freedom: 2 (inversion/eversion; flexion/extension)
o Bernstein considered that the solution was to reduce the movement of nonessential or redundant body parts in the initial stage of learning by freezing degrees of freedom.
Bernstein's Stage 1: Reduce Degrees of Freedom
just one (out of all the ways) in which the various muscles and joints are free to move
degree of freedom
o The learner attempts to improve performance by releasing some of the degrees of freedom that had initially been frozen.
o Particularly useful in tasks that require power or speed, because the degrees of freedom that have been released could allow for faster and greater accumulation of forces.
o Ex. Can't jump as high because they cannot generate power/force
♣ Froze them with no hands, no knees
♣ Biggest muscle in the human body: glutes
Bernstein's Stage 2: Release Degrees of Freedom
o The performer learns to exploit the passive dynamics of the body - essentially, the energy and motion that come for free with the help of physics.
♣ Little guy (Jared Harper) can dunk because he can exploit the passive dynamics
♣ Passive dynamics (because already created the energy)
o The movement becomes maximally skilled in terms of effectiveness (achieving the result with maximum assuredness) and efficiency (minimum outlay of energy).
♣ Trying to be maximally effective and maximally efficient
♣ "Work smarter not harder"
Bernstein's Stage 3: Exploit Passive Dynamics
Limitations of Fitts' and Bernstein's Stages: neither was meant to describe learning as a series of discrete, nonlinear, and ____________ stages.
Limitations of Fitts' and Bernstein's Stages: Fitts considered performance change to be ___________ (backwards) as well as _____________ (forwards).
Limitations of Fitts' and Bernstein's Stages: _____________________ also play an important role in the stage views of both Fitts and Bernstein.
Limitations of Fitts' and Bernstein's Stages: Fitts: Some tasks never achieve _______________ (automatic, stereotypic), such as some continuous movements (running, swimming, cycling)
Limitations of Fitts' and Bernstein's Stages: Bernstein: Gymnasts ____________ degrees of freedom as they improve balance
Changes in brain activation as a function of motor learning: activity in striatum and motor areas (I.e. M1) _________________ whereas activity in PFC ____________
Changes in brain structure as a function of motor learning: ____________ in gray and white matter in task relevant areas
increases (brain is plastic/malleable)
interval of time where forgetting may occur
____________ tasks are forgotten relatively quickly
______________ tasks are retained very well over long periods of time of no practice
______________ retention depends largely on the nature of the task.
refers to a specific type of retention deficit due to the loss of an activity set
The warm-up decrement disturbance to performance is eliminated quickly once a few trials of _________ are experienced.
Learner typically suffers a relatively large performance decent and is temporarily prevented from performing at his maximum potential
a psychological factor that is brought on by the passage of time away from a task and is eliminated when the performer begins again to perform a few trials
Many consider warm-up decrement the result of a loss of the _______ that facilities performance before the retention break, and that, having been lost over the retention interval, now prevents a return to maximum performance potential for a short period of time
a collection of psychological activities, states, or adjustment and processes that are appropriate and support performance while an activity is ongoing but are "lost" when a different set is adopted to support the activities undertaken during rest
__________, which is sometimes called generalization, is an important goal of practice. It refers to the idea that learning acquired during practice of a given task can be applied to other task situations
the gain or loss in the capability to perform one task as a result of practice or experience on another task
__________ between skills depends on the skills' movement or perceptual similarity
The concept of similarity among skills involves several classes of common features: (3)
common movement patterning (I.e. throwing a football or a handball), common perceptual elements (I.e. quarterback looking for receiver and goalie looking for player to throw the ball to), and common strategic or conceptual elements (chess strategy)
An important extension of Henry's specificity hypothesis: the amount of transfer from earlier learning should drop markedly when the learner becomes more highly skilled in the to-be-transferred skill. This decrease in transfer occurs because, with continued practice and increased capability, a skill becomes more ____________ and shares less with other skills of the same movement type.
Some skills are enormously complex, such as playing a musical instrument and performing a gymnastics' routine. Clearly, in such situations the instructor cannot present all aspects of the skill at once for practice because the student would be overwhelmed and would likely grasp almost none of it. An approach is to divide the task into meaningful units that can be isolated for separate _______________ with the goal of integrating the units into the whole skill for later performance
For ___________________ with no component interaction part practice on the difficult elements is very efficient
very slow, serial tasks
For _______________________, practice of the parts in isolation is seldom useful and can be detrimental to learning
very brief, programmed actions
The more the components of a task interact with each other the _______ the effectiveness of part practice
a practice device designed to mimic features of a real world task
Can be an important part of an instructional program, especially when the skill is expensive or dangerous, where facilities are limited, or where real practice is not feasible
the degree to which the simulator mimics the criterion task
the degree to which the surface features of a simulation and the criterion task themselves are identical
the degree to which the behaviors produced in a simulator are identical to the behaviors required by the criterion task; the degree to which the behaviors and processes produced in the simulator replicate those required by the criterion task
Transfer is expected to __________ with task similarity.
refers to the degree to which the simulator replicates the physical features of the criterion task - possessing as much of the look, sound, and feel of the criterion task as possible
is more concerned with the target skills and behaviors required to perform the criterion task rather than the physical similarity