Sustainability Exam 3
Terms in this set (19)
what is meant by carbon intensity and why is it an important concept to understand
-Carbon intensity is the amount of CO2 emitted per a specified amount of energy obtained. The units of the examples used in class were kg of carbon emitted per 1 terajoule of energy. It is an important concept to understand when comparing the emissions of different fuel sources to find the "cleaner" fuel.
TED TALK ON ENERGY SECURITY: list 3 basic strategies that high income nations can use to improve their energy security
-leave oil before it leaves us, save electricity and make it differently (motors, pumps, and pipes, rearranging metal furniture), lead the change with business and ingenuity instead of government regulation
efficient use, alternative renewable supplies,
what is urban sprawl, why is it not a sustainable way to develop
a land use pattern with low-density population and housing spreading along major streets and arterial roadways (think suburbs). It is not a sustainable way of developing because it requires more land use, further reaches for utilities like electricity and water, and increases the need for transportation.
What is mixed-use and land-use planning, Why is helpful for achieving sustainable development
land use planning is the development of a plan for the use of an area of land, and mixed use in terms of land use planning includes the idea of an urban center where homes coexist with shops businesses recreational spaces etc. with high levels of population density.
it achieves sustainable development by creating less sprawl so less reason for constant transportation less land use and less distance to spread utilities across large areas.
List 5 principles of smart growth
-mix land uses
-compact building design
-provide a variety of transportation choices
-preserve open space, farmland, natural beauty, and critical environmental areas
What is conservation design, How do WE design in that way
conservation design identifies conservation areas (sensitive features of landscape) then locates housing signs and designs street alignments, trails, and lot lines to work around important areas
step 1- identify conservation areas
step 2- diagrams secondary landscape features to incorporate (attractive already existing landscape)
step 3- buildable area works around the conservation and secondary landscape areas and keeps the road views attractive and less of a nuisance.
step 4- complete the plan with streets/trails
List pros and cons to leadership and energy in environmental design (LEED) program
pros- design green building rating system provides third party verification of superior green buildings, widely known and large, point system, covers many types of buildings, allows leed accreditation
cons- accreditation, courses, and exams can be expensive, the rating system can encourage a point getting attitude so you can lose focus of the main goal of sustainability
List pros and cons to Building Research Establishment Environment Assessment Method (BREEAM)
buildings meet standards by meeting detailed criterions. Solutions work for a long time and are sustainable (incudes three pillars), takes into account occupants of buildings, weighted balanced scorecard to work away from "business as usual" model. rewards best practice that goes beyond building regulations, rewards certificates as proof of compliance
CONS - less widespread and recognized more expensive
Compare and contrast leed and bream
Both reward progress and provide marketability and increased reputation for sustainable building practice
LEED is more of a get points system with certification levels and can encourage a less than ideal mentality of getting points. BREAM encourages sustainable design AND use of buildings and is less wide spread and is more expensive
How does the ocean control the weather
ocean currents transport warm water and precipitation from equator towards poles and cold water the other way, it counteracts the uneven distribution of solar radiation reaching earth. Ocean also absorbs heat in the atmosphere.
List 3 ways in which the corals impact human health and survival
-little fish disappear, big fish disappear, affects food source
-coastline barriers for storms and waves to protect infrastructure
-Great Barrier Reef and other coral reefs provide a tourism attraction for areas nearby providing money
What causes coral bleaching
temperature spikes above normal range, photosynthesis is impaired, coral flushes out the photosynthesizing cells (most important food source), coral becomes a white skeleton
Assuming the appropriate conditions for survival, what is the life span of coral
they live as long as their environment allows them to so in a perfect situation essentially they live forever
List the 4 leading consumption related environmental problems
-water use and pollution
List 3 of the 7 most harmful consumer activities
-air conditioning and heating
-washing machines/ dishwashers/ appliance use
(PERSPECTIVE) remember: the cube through the plane thing, one way its only projecting a square, but in another direction, it can be a dynamic projection. Why does perspective matter in the field of engineering and give a specific engineering example that exemplifies this importance
perspective matters because without perspective engineers would not be able to solve problems with multiple issues at hand or be able to look at multiple ways of solving a problem. Many times in designs there are many needs that need to be met and the only way to consider them is to shift perspective and view the problem in multiple ways
An example would be the fog nets in Chile. Engineers shifted their perspective from mechanical machinery and pumps to bring water to the town and instead used an idea that locals could manage themselves that was cost effective and provided water for crops.
)( Same thing with scale
Scale matters because without considering the units or scale of units in problems, engineers can create failures, but can also miss information that was skimmed over. Using a ruler to measure the width of a penny, for example, would be using an improper scale and could lead to a greater margin for error than using something like a caliper that matches the small scale of the item you are measuring. Another example could be graphing data in a logarithmic scale. When data is very separated on a graph, it can be difficult to measure fluctuations and trends. Graphing in a logarithmic scale leads to clearer and easier to read data.
Ghosts of green buildings: what did he put for past, present, and future
past- Asset Based
List 3 ways in which fractals could be used in the field of engineering
-spatial analysis of cities
-building systems (high efficiency roofs)