180 terms

AP US quarter test2

book vocab chapters 9-17. all middle initials have been left out of vocab names.
African Methodist Episcopal Church
The first black-run Protestant denomination.
Alexis de Tocqueville
A French aristocrat who came to America in 1831 with the stated purpose of reporting on American prisons to the French government, but with the real intent of learning more about the sprawling American republic. he eventually would weave his impressions of this "half-civilized, half-wild" nation into his two-volume masterpiece, Democracy in America (1835, 1840), still considered the most insightful analysis of the American character by a foreigner.
Catherine Beecher
A leading author and the daughter of the prominent minister Lyman Beecher. She later renewed the engagement, but after her fiancé's death in a shipwreck, she remained single for the rest of her life. Many young women during Beecher's time were reluctant to tie the knot, fearing that marriage would snuff out their independence.
Eli Whitney
invented the cotton gin
Erie Canal
It connected the Hudson River with Lake Erie and enabled produce from Ohio to reach New York City by a continuous stretch of waterways.
Five Civilized Tribes
The Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, and Seminoles.
Gibbons v. Ogden
Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that Congress's constitutional power to regulate interstate commerce applied to navigation and thus had to prevail over New York's power to license the Livingston-Fulton monopoly. In the aftermath of this decision, other state-granted monopolies collapsed, and steamboat traffic increased rapidly. The number of steamboats operating on western rivers jumped from 17 in 1817 to 727 by 1855.
horizontal allegiances
Allegiances that linked those in a similar position, not the subordinates with the authority figure.
Indian Removal Act (1830)
This law authorized Jakcosn to exchange public lands in the West for Indian territories in the east and appropriated $500,000 to cover the removal expenses
market economy
commercial agriculture
Old Northwest
The northern part of the area between the Appalachian and the Mississippi River
Old Southwest
The southern part of the area between the Appalachian and the Mississippi River
Panic of 1819
major financial collapse that brought on many bank failures and unemployment
Richard Allen
He was a former slave who was ejected from the Methodist church of Philadelphia for mistakenly sitting in the gallery designed for whites. He eventually became a bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal Church.
separate spheres
Contrast to the traditional belief that women were subordinate to men in all spheres of life, now middle-class men and women developed a kind of separate-but-equal doctrine that portrayed men as superior in making money and governing the world, and women as superior for their moral influence on family members.
people who occupied land that they were not permitted to occupy
Trail of Tears
The forced migration in 1838 of Cherokee Indians to what is now Oklahoma
transportation revolution
when attention and investment shifted to improving transportation on waterways
vertical allegiances
Where authority flows from the top down. Subordinates identify their interests with those of their superiors rather than with others in the same subordinate role.
voluntary associations
Associations that arose apart from government and sought to accomplish some goal of value to their members. Voluntary associations encouraged sociability. As transients and newcomers flocked into towns and cities, they tended to join others with similar characteristics, experiences, or interests.
Waltham and Lowell textile mills
These mills turned out finished fabrics that required only one additional step, stitching into clothes. In contrast to other New England mills, 80 percent of the workers in Waltham and Lowell, places that had not even existed in the eighteenth century, were young unmarried women who had been lured from farms by the promise of wages.
American Temperance Society
first national temperance organization
Angelina and Sarah Grimké
Daughters of a South Carolina slaveholder who embarked on an antislavery lecture tour of New England in 1837. What made the Grimké sisters so controversial was that they drew mixed audiences of men and women to their lectures at a time when it was thought indelicate for women to speak before male audiences
Charles Finney
Began his career as a lawyer, but after a religious conversion in 1821, which he described as a "retainer from the Lord Jesus Christ to plead his cause," he became a Presbyterian minister and conducted revivals in towns like Rome and Utica along the Erie canal. Although he also found time for trips to New York and Boston, his greatest "harvest" came in the thriving canal city of Rochester in 1830-1831
Democratic Party
A new political party that emerged in the 1820s.
Dorothea Dix
Idealistic Unitarian schoolteacher who investigated jails and almshouses across Massachusetts. With the support of Horace Mann and Boston reformer Samuel G. Howe, she encouraged legislatures to build insane asylums.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
One of the leading women's rights activists in the 1840s.
Henry Clay
Politician from Kentucky who was one of the leaders of the Whig party. He ran against Andrew Jackson in 1824 and threw in his votes with John Quincy Adams' when Jackson failed to capture the majority as required by the Constitution. his action secured the presidency for Adams, but when Adams promptly appointed him his secretary of state, Jackson's supporters raged that a "corrupt bargain" had cheated Jackson of the presidency.
Horace Mann
Became the first secretary of the newly created Massachusetts board of education in 1837 and presided over sweeping reforms to transform schools into institutions that occupied most of a child's time and energy. Mann's goals included shifting financial support from parents to the state, extending the school term from two or three to as many as ten months, standardizing textbooks, classifying students into grades based on their age and attainment, and compelling attendance.
Lucretia Mott
A Quaker from Philadelphia who advocated for women's rights.
Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. It emerged in the 1820s, and it was very controversial. They believe that Jesus had actually appeared and performed miracles in America, but the American descendants of the ancient Hebrew prophet Lehi had departed from the Lord's ways and quarreled among themselves. God had cursed some with dark skin; these were the American Indians, who, when later discovered by Columbus, had forgotten their history.
nullification crisis
Direct clash between Jackson and callhoun. an attempt by South Carolina to refuse the laws of the National Government
Panic of 1837
A severe depression that struck the United States beginning in May 1837. Prices began to tumble, and bank after bank suspended specie payments
political democratization
The rising democratic idea of politics as a forum for the expression of the will of the common people rather than as an activity that gentlemen conducted for the people. One of the most common forms of political democratization was the abolition of the requirement that voters own property. Moreover, written ballots replaced the custom of voting aloud, which had enabled superiors to influence their inferiors at the polls. Appointive office increasingly became elective.
Second Bank of the United States
Received a twenty-year charter from Congress in 1816. However, the bank was located in Philadelphia, not Washington, and its directors enjoyed considerable independence. Its president, the aristocratic Nicholas Biddle, viewed himself as a public servant, duty-bound to keep the bank above politics.
Second Great Awakening
A religious revival that began in Connecticut in the 1790s. These were gigantic revivals in many parts of the country in which members of several denominations gathered together in sprawling open-air camps for up to a week to hear revivalists proclaim that the Second Coming of Jesus was near and that the time for repentance was now.
Seneca Falls Convention
Women's rights convention in 1848. The ____________'s Declaration of Sentiments, modeled on the Declaration of Independence, began with the assertion that "all men and women are created equal." The convention passed twelve resolutions, and only one, a call for the right of women to vote, failed to pass unanimously; but it did pass. Ironically, after the Civil War, the call for woman suffrage became the main demand of women's rights advocates for the rest of the century.
Spoils System
The practice of basing appointments on party loyalty.
utopian communities
Experimental communities that started springing up in the 1820s.
whig party
The main opponent of Andrew Jackson's Democratic Party.
William Lloyd Garrison
Founder of The Liberator and was the most controversial white abolitionist. He believed in the truly radical notion that blacks should enjoy civil (or legal) equality with whites.
American Renaissance
A flowering of literature in the United States that began in the 1820s. Not only were Americans writing more books; increasingly, they sought to depict the features of their nation in literature and art.
American System of Manufacturing
System of manufacturing that used interchangeable parts
Edgar Allan Poe
Famous American writer who short stories such as "The Murders in the Rue Morgue" (1841) and "The Cask of Amontillado" (1846). Although he was a major contributor to the American Renaissance, he paid little heed to Emerson's call for a literature that would comprehend the everyday experiences of ordinary Americans.
diseases in a human population during a certain period of time
Frederick Law Olmstead
chief architect of NYC's Central Park
George Catlin
American Painter whose goal was to paint as many Native Americans as possible in their pure, savage state.
Henry David Thoreau
American renaissance writer who shared Emerson's intellectual pursuit. At one point he went to jail rather than pay his poll tax, which would support the war with Mexico, which he viewed as part of a southern conspiracy to extend slavery. Wrote "Civil Disobedience" (1849), where he defended a citizen's right to disobey unjust laws. also wrote walden.
Herman Melville
Author during the Am. Renaissance. Wrote Moby Dick. paid little heed to Emerson's call for a literature that would comprehend the everyday experiences of ordinary Americans.
Hudson River Valley School
School that was part of the American art movement in the mid-1800s. The artists primarily painted scenes of the region around the Hudson River, a waterway that Americans compared in majesty to the Rhine.
James Fenimore Cooper
The first important figure of the American Renaissance. His most significant innovation was introducing a distinctively American fictional character, the frontiersman Natty Bumppo ("Leatherstocking").
Margaret Fuller
Social reformer, leader in women's movement and a transcendentalist. Edited "The Dial" which was the publication of the transcendentalists.she contended that no woman could achieve the kind of personal fulfillment lauded by Emerson unless she developed her intellectual abilities and overcame her fear of being called masculine.
McCormick Reaper
Mechanical reaper invented by Cyrus McCormick in 1847.
minstrel shows
Live shows when white men in blackface took to the stage to present an evening of songs, dances, and humorous sketches. Minstrelsy borrowed some authentic elements of African- American culture, especially dances characterized by the sliding, shuffling step of southern blacks, but most of the songs had origins in white culture.
Nathaniel Hawthorne
Well-known author of The Scarlet Letter. Although he was a major contributor to the American Renaissance, Hawthorne paid little heed to Emerson's call for a literature that would comprehend the everyday experiences of ordinary Americans.
New York Stock Exchange
NYCs center of financing where leading railroads were traded in 1850s.
PT Barnum
fter moving to New York City in 1834, started a new career as an entrepreneur of popular entertainment. A few years later, he established the American Museum, which became the most popular museum in America at the time because it showcased collections of curiosities and fake exhibits. He eventually founded the now-famous Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey Circus.
penny press
inexpensive newspapers prodeuced in 1830s
the idea that there exists a relationship between persons head shape and their mental capacities/deficiencies. this theory was widely used for both intelligence determination and personality assessment in the 1800's
Ralph Waldo Emerson
American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist. contended that our ideas of God and freedom are inborn
Walt Whitman
Well-known author of Leaves of Grass, which shattered most existing poetic conventions. Not only did he write in free verse, but the poems were also lusty and blunt at a time when delicacy reigned in the literary world.
cotton kingdom
territory from SC, Georgia, northern florida through Alabama Mississippi, Tennessee and Louisiana and arkansas and texas.
Denmark Vesey
South Carolina slave who won fifteen hundred dollars in a lottery and bought his freedom
Frederick Douglas
A former slave who was the leading black abolitionist during the antebellum period
free blacks
Blacks who were not slaves. Most of them lived in urban areas. The relatively specialized economies of the cities provided free people of color with opportunities to become carpenters, coopers (barrel makers), barbers, and even small traders.
George Fitshugh
Virginian who contrasted the plight of northern factory workers, "wage slaves" who were callously discarded by their bosses when they were too old or too sick to work, with the southern slaves, who were fed and clothed even when old and ill because they were the property of conscientious masters.
Harriet Tubman
Former slave and abolitionist who made repeated trips to the south to help slaves escape through the underground railroad.
The Impending Crisis of the South
trouble-brewing book written in 1857 by Hinton R. Helper, attempting to prove that slavery hurt non-slaveholding whites the most. called upon non-slaveholders to abolish slavery in their own interest
internal slave trade
slave trade within the upper and lower south
lower (deep) south
consisted of SC, Georgia, Florida, Alamaba Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas.
Nat Turner
Slave from VA that led group of slaves to kill their slaves holders and familes in a rebellion. Turner caught and executed. Slave states stricker control on slave population, prior to the rebellion, Virginians had worried little about a slave rebellion
old south
Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Arkansas, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas.
pine barrens people
Making up about 10 percent of southern whites, they usually squatted on the land, put up crude cabins, cleared some acreage on which they planted corn between tree stumps, and grazed hogs and cattle in the woods. They neither raised cash crops nor engaged in the daily routine of orderly work that characterized family farmers. With their ramshackle houses and handful of stump-strewn acres, they appeared lazy and shiftless.
plantation agriculture
Characterized by a high degree of division of labor, it was virtually an agricultural equivalent of a factory village.
Southern code of honor
extraordinary sensitivity to one's reputation, the belief that ones self esteem depends on other's judgement. one would not duel someone lower than them.
Religious songs sang by blacks. Its is shrouded in obscurity, but it is clear that by 1820 blacks at camp meetings had improvised what one white described as "short scraps of disjointed affirmations, pledges, or prayers lengthened out with long repetition choruses."
task system
each slave has a daily or weekly quota of tasks to complete
tredegar iron works
located in richmond, it was the nations 4th largest iron product producer
underground railroad
organized network of safe houses owned by white abolitionists who spirited blacks to freedom in the North- Harriet Tubman.
upper south
Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas.
An abandoned mission where 200 defenders of San Antonio retreated in February 1836 after Santa Anna's army of 4,000 men defeated them.
California Gold Rush
After an American carpenter discovered gold in the foothills of California's Sierra Nevada range in 1848, many Americans moved to California to look for gold.
Mexicans who lived in California
commonwealth v. hunt
court case where the Massachusetts supreme court ruled that labor unions were not illegal monopolies that restrained trade (1842)
Free-soil party
Formed in 1847 - 1848, dedicated to opposing slavery in newly acquired territories such as Oregon and ceded Mexican territory, a faction of the democratic party in NY that favored the Wilmot Proviso.
German and Irish immigrants
They formed more than 60 percent of the population of St. Louis; nearly half the population of New York City, Chicago, Cincinnati, Milwaukee, Detroit, and San Francisco; and well over a third that of New Orleans, Baltimore, and Boston by 1860.
James Polk
The first "dark-horse" presidential nominee in American history and a supporter of immediate annexation.
John Tyler
Followed Harrison as the president of the United States after Harrison's untimely death.
Manifest destiny
Coined by journalist John L. O'Sullivan, it was the belief that it was the United States' mission to expand to spread freedom.
anti-immagrant policy
oregon country
The land north of the forty-second parallel (the northern boundary of California), south of 54°402 (the southern boundary of Alaska), and west of the Rocky Mountains.
sam houston
United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863), First president of the Republic of Texas
Santa fe trail
Route to Santa Fe, New Mexico from St.Louis, used by traders in the 1800's
Stephen Austin
Original settler of Texas, granted land from Mexico on condition of no slaves, convert to Roman Catholic, and learn Spanish,, Austin, Texas was named after him; he was the man the brought the first Americans into Texas because he was granted permission by the Mexicans. Leader of Texas settlers in 1820
native texan of mexican desent
treaty of Guadeloupe hidalgo
Mexico ceded Texas with the Rio Grande boundary, New Mexico, and California to the United States. In return, the United States assumed the claims of American citizens against the Mexican government and paid Mexico $15 million. It was signed on February 2, 1848.
wilmot proviso
amendment that stipulated that slavery be prohibited in any territory acquired by negotiations.
zachary taylor
Victorious military leader in the Mexican-American war who became the president of the United States in 1848. member of the Whig Party.
Abraham Lincoln
Illinois lawer that joined republican party in 1856, ran for president in 1860. Became one of the most important US presidents.
Charles Sumner
Republican senator from Massachusetts who opposed slavery. beat with a cane by brooks. leading advocates for a reconstruction program after the Civil War.
compromise of 1850
Statehood for California; territorial status for Utah and New Mexico, allowing popular sovereignty; resolution of the Texas-New Mexico boundary disagreement; federal assumption of the Texas debt; abolition of the slave trade in the District of Columbia; and a new fugitive slave law.
confederate states of America
fromed 1861, made up of south carolina, alabma, mississippi, florida, georgia, louisiana and texas.
Dred Scott v. Sandford
Court case in 1857 when a former slave, Dred Scott, sued for his own freedom after his master died on the grounds of his residence in free territory. In the end, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney decided that Scott could not sue for his own freedom. No black, whether a slave or a free person descended from a slave, could become a citizen of the United States.
Fort Sumter
located in charleston, SC. where the shots that began the civil war were fired
Franklin Pierce
democrat from New Hampshire, won presidential election of 1848
free soil
the doctirne with insisted congress prohibit slavery in the territories
Fugitive slave act
Denied alleged fugitives the right of trial by jury, did not allow them to testify in their own behalf, permitted their return to slavery merely on the testimony of the claimant, and enabled court-appointed commissioners to collect ten dollars if they ruled for the slaveholder but only five dollars if they ruled for the fugitive.
higher law
the will of god
John Brown
Famous white abolitionist who was wanted for the massacre of white southerners in Kansas in 1856. He believed that God had ordained him "to purge this land with blood" of the evil of slavery.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
signed by president pierce, 1854. made it possible for settlers in the new states of Kansas and Nebraska to decide whether or not slavery would be allowed in their home states.
Founded in 1850, this party was one of many such societies that mushroomed in response to the unprecedented immigration of the 1840s. It had sought to rid the United States of immigrant and Catholic political influence by pressuring the existing parties to nominate and appoint only native-born Protestants to office and by advocating an extension of the naturalization period before immigrants could vote.
Lecompton constitution
supported the existence of slavery in the proposed state and protected rights of slaveholders. provided for a referendum in which voters could decide whether to allow in more slaves. It was rejected by Kansas, making Kansas an eventual free state.
personal-liberty laws
Aimed to preclude state officials from enforcing the law by such techniques as forbidding the use of state jails to incarcerate alleged fugitives.
popular sovereignty
promised to ease the slavery extension issue out of national politics but allowing territories to decide
Republican Party
political party the sprang up in the north 1854-1855. After the know-nothing demise in 1856, this party became the major opposition to the democratic party.
slave power
The conspiracy of slaveholders and their northern dupes to grab more territory for slavery.
Stephen Douglas
Politician from Illinois who was one of the nominees of the Democratic Party for President in 1860. He was the main advocate of the Compromise of 1850.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Harriet Beecher Stowe's 1852 novel which aroused wide northern sympathy for fugitive slaves.
anaconda plan
This military strategy called for the Union to blockade the southern coastline and to thrust, like a snake, down the Mississippi River.
appomattox courthouse
the Virginia town where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant in 1865, ending the Civil War
battle of antietam
North win. happened in Maryland, led to the Emancipation Proclamation, 1862, first mahor battle on northern soil.
Battle of Gettysburg
Turning point of the War. 50,000 people died, and the South lost its chance to invade the North. 1863
Battle of Shiloh
1862 Civil War Battle; tennessee. The bloodiest in American history to that date
Battle of Vicksburg
1863, Union gains control of Mississippi, confederacy split in two, Grant takes lead of Union armies
This required all able-bodied white men aged eighteen to thirty-five to serve in the military for three years. Subsequent amendments raised the age limit to forty-five and then to fifty, and lowered it to seventeen.
cotton diplomacy
Southerners believed that they could use cotton to help them win the Civil War. Southern notions of embargoing cotton exports in order to bring the British to their knees failed. Planters conducted business as usual by raising cotton and trying to slip it through the blockade.
emancipation proclamation
issued of jan 1, 1863 it declared "forever free" all the slaves in areas of rebellion.
first battle of bull run
1st major battle in the civil war, also known as first manasas. 1861, confederate victory
freedmen's bureau
created by congress in 1865, reponsible for relief, education and employment of former slaves
homestead act
1862, embodied republican ideal of "free soil, free labor, free men" by granting 160 acres of public land to settlers after five years of residence on the land.
Jefferson Davis
President of Confederacy
Legal Tender Act
signed in 1862, authorized $150 million of greenbacks, was created in response to many Northerners withdrawing their gold from the banks
Morrill Land Grant Act
of 1862, in this act, the federal government had donated public land to the states for the establishment of colleges. spurred the growth of large state universities, mainly in the Midwest and West
National Bank Act
This established criteria by which a bank could obtain a federal charter and issue national bank notes. It also gave private bankers an incentive to purchase war bonds.
New york city draft riots
Enraged by the first drawing of names under the Enrollment Act and by a longshoremen's strike in which blacks had been used as strikebreakers, mobs of Irish working-class men and women roamed the streets for four days until suppressed by federal troops.
Radical Republicans
Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase, Senator Charles Sumner, and Representative Thaddeus Stevens. on some issues they cooperated with Lincoln. They assailed him early in the war for failing to make emancipation a war goal and later for being too eager to readmit the conquered rebel states into the Union.
Robert Lee
west point graduate, leader of confederate army
13th amendment
Constitutional amendment that abolished slavery. It was passed by Congress in 1865. (#th)
Ulysses Grant
The eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
United states sanitary commission
Prevented the spread of disease in camps, improved camp conditions, raised money for supplies, tracked down the missing, had supplies ready after battles, and recruited and trained nurses.
WIlliam Sherman
West Point graduate and Mexican-American war veteran who had most recently run a southern military academy. He lead the Union troops and captured Atlanta.
Women's National Loyal League
An organization that called for a constitutional amendment to abolish slavery, but it was used to promote woman suffrage as well.
Andrew Johnson
A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote.
black codes
laws passed in the south just after the civil war, aimed at controlling freedmen and enabling plantation owners to exploit african american workers
Civil Rights Act of 1875
Proposed by Charles Sumner, it was designed to desegregate schools, transportation facilities, juries, and public accommodations. But in 1883, in the Civil Rights Cases, the Supreme Court invalidated the law; the Fourteenth Amendment did not prohibit discrimination by individuals, only that perpetrated by the state.
Civil Rights Act of 1866
The first major law ever passed over a presidential veto. It made blacks U.S. citizens with the same civil rights as other citizens and authorized federal intervention in the states to ensure black rights in court.
Compromise of 1877
Rutherford Hayes became the President of the United States with the condition that he would remove federal troops in the South
Enforcement Acts
Three acts passed by Congress allowing the government to use military force to stop violence against southern African Americans.
freedmen who migrated from the south to the north& midwest for better oppurtunities
15th amendment
prohibited the denial of suffrage by the states to any citizen on acount of race, color or previous condition of servitude. (#th)
14th amendment
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws. It guaranteed that if a state denied suffrage to any of its male citizens, its representation in Congress would be proportionally reduced. This clause did not guarantee black suffrage.
greenback party
The political party that opposed the silver-based currency and fought to keep greenbacks in circulation.
Ku Klux Klan
A "social club" formed by six young Confederate war veterans. The Klan performed elaborate rituals, wore hooded costumes, and had secret passwords. It sought to suppress black voting, reestablish white supremacy, and topple the Reconstruction governments.
liberal republicans
Republicans who endorsed economic doctrines such as free trade, the gold standard, and the law of supply and demand.
Presidential reconstruction
Andrew Johnson's bold move to governments—Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Texas. Almost all southerners who took an oath of allegiance would receive a pardon and amnesty, and all their property except slaves would be restored. Oath takers could elect delegates to state conventions, which would provide for regular elections. Each state convention, Johnson later added, would have to proclaim the illegality of secession, repudiate state debts incurred when the state belonged to the Confederacy, and ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, which abolished slavery
reconstruction act of 1867
This Act was passed by Congress which was vetoed by President Johnson. This Act invalidated the state governments formed under the Lincoln & Johnson plans and all the legal decisions made by those governments.
system in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farmworkers in return for a portion of their crops
slaughterhouse cases
the Louisiana legislature had granted a monopoly over the New Orleans slaughterhouse business to one firm. the court protected only the rights of national citizenship, It did not protect those basic civil rights that fell to citizens. with this, the supreme court limited the impact of the post civil war ammendments by defining US citizenship narrowly and leaving the states to regulate domestic race relations
Susan B Anthony
Women's rights leader who contended that the Fifteenth Amendment established an "aristocracy of sex" and increased women's disadvantages.
tenure of office act
Prohibited the president from removing civil officers without Senate consent and barred the president from issuing military orders except through the commanding general, Ulysses S. Grant, who could not be removed without the Senate's consent.
Thaddeus Stevens
Pennsylvania senator from the Radical republican party, one of the leading advocates for reconstruction after Civil War.
cattle drives
the forced migration of massive numbers of cattle to the railroads where they could be shipped to the East.
comstock lode
A site along Nevada's Carson River where Henry Comstock, an illiterate prospector, discovered plenty of gold.
curtis act
Dissolved the Indian Territory and abolished tribal governments
Dawes Severalty Act
Bill that promised Indians tracts of land to farm in order to assimilate them into white culture. The bill was resisted, uneffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes. 160 acres of reservation land for farming, or 320 acres for grazing, to each head of an Indian family. 1887
Edmunds-Tucker Act
1887 act which destroyed the temporal power of the Mormon Church by confiscating all assets over $50,000 and establishing a federal commission to oversee all elections in the Utah territory
Fort Laramie Treaty
A treaty between the Sioux Plains Indians and the US government, where the Sioux agreed to move to reservations on the so-called Great Sioux Reserve in the western part of what is now South Dakota in return for money and provisions
George Perkins Marsh
rchitect and politician from Vermont, he cautioned Americans to curb their destructive use of the landscape and warned the public to change its ways.
Ghost Dance
Sioux dancers moved in a circle, accelerating until they reached a trancelike state and experienced visions of the future where European-Americans would be destroyed and removed from Indian lands.
Helen Hunt Jackson
Massachusetts writer who published A Century of Dishonor in 1881 to rally public opinion against the government's record of broken treaty obligation.
John Muir
A Scottish-born American naturalist, author, and early advocate of preservation of U.S. wilderness.
John Wesley Powell
Argued that settlers needed to change their pattern of settlement and readjust their expectations about the use of water in the dry terrain west of the hundredth meridian in his study, Report on the Lands of the Arid Regions of the United States (1878).
Nat Love
african American cowboy, wrote an autobiography, nicknamed deadwood dick
Oliver Wister
Author of The Virginian. For Wister, the cowboy was the Christian knight on the Plains, indifferent to material gain as he upheld virtue, pursued justice, and attacked evil
Plains Indians
Lakota Sioux, Blackfeet, Crow, and Cheyenne Indians. Their lives revolved around extended family ties and tribal cooperation.
Sitting Bull
Sioux chief who led the attack on Custer at the Battle of the Little Bighorn
Wild west show
The show, which toured the East Coast and Europe, cowboys engaged in mock battles with Indians, reinforcing the dime-novel image of the West as an arena of moral encounter where virtue always triumphed.
William Cody
"Buffalo Bill", A famous scout and Indian fighter who killed nearly forty-three hundred bison in 1867-1868 to feed construction crews building the Union Pacific Railroad, started Wild West Show
wounded knee
A site in South Dakota where the bloodiest clash between Sioux Indians and whites occurred. Within minutes 300 Indians, including 7 infants, were slaughtered.
_________ national park- The hot springs and geysers near the ___ River in northwestern Wyoming and eastern Montana. Congress made it a National Park in 1872 to "provide for the preservation . . . for all time, [of] mineral deposits, natural curiosities, or wonders within said park . . . in their natural condition."