27 terms

LING 47 - Aphasia symptoms and related disorders

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alexia
An acquired impairment of reading.
agraphia
An acquired impairment of writing.
anomia
An impairment in word finding ("word retrieval) ability. This is a symptom shared by all aphasia types.
aphasia
Any of several acquired (i.e. not congenital or developmental) disorders affecting language abilities, due to injury to the brain.
expressive aphasia
Any aphasia type primarily characterized by difficulty in language production.
receptive aphasia
Any aphasia type primarily characterized by difficulty in language comprehension.
mixed aphasia
A form of aphasia combining characteristics of several major forms of aphasia.
paraphasia
An error in word production, due to language impairments associated with aphasia, such as difficulties in lexical retrieval or articulatory planning.
phonemic paraphasia
Errors in word production in which the word that is spoken differs from the intended word due to substitution, omission, or addition of speech sounds. Example: "noozle" for "noodle".
semantic paraphasia
Errors in word production in which the word that is spoken is semantically related to the intended word. Example: "girl" for "woman".
perseverative paraphasia
Errors in word production in which a word produced earlier is inadvertently repeated.
neologism
Errors in word production in which what is produced are unintelligible forms not clearly related to an intended word. Example: "dowfler" for "pencil".
unrelated verbal paraphasia
Errors in word production in which the word that is produced bears no apparent phonological or semantic similarity to the intended word. Example: "foot" for "panther".
jargon
A form of speech output characterized by speech containing many neologisms.
agrammatism
A form of speech output characterized by omission of many function words (e.g. determiners, auxiliaries, and prepositions), omission of grammatical markers such as "-ing" or "-s", and (often) the use of few verbs. This is often seen in speakers with Broca's aphasia.
self-repair
A revision or restatement of a word or utterance, initiated when a speaker notices an error in spoken (or signed) language production. These are common in speakers with and without aphasia.
conduit d'approche
A speech pattern consisting of repeated attempts at self-repair during word production that get increasingly closer to the correct word; sometimes, but not exclusively, observed in conduction aphasia.
motor deficit
An impairment in the ability to control one's movements (e.g. movement of one's articulators, such as the tongue, jaw, or lips).
dysarthria
A motor speech disorder characterized by poor articulation, due to weakening or partial paralysis of the muscles of the articulators, mouth, face, or the muscles needed for breathing and/or swallowing.
apraxia of speech
A motor speech disorder affecting the ability to create and/or sequence motor plans for speech.
buccofacial-oral apraxia
An impairment in planning and intentionally carrying out movements of the lips, cheeks, tongue, and surrounding areas.
dysphagia
A swallowing disorder; difficulty swallowing.
anosognosia
The condition of having impaired awareness of a deficit or disorder that one actually has.
empty speech
Speech that is abundant, yet lacking in meaning; also: speech that is characterized by an overreliance on 'semantically empty', i.e. uninformative words (e.g. using "things", "do" to refer to most objects and actions, respectively).
ideomotor apraxia
Impaired ability to program movements for pantomiming gestures or demonstrating actions on command.
hemiparesis
Weakness or partial paralysis of one side of the body.
hemiplegia
Complete paralysis of one side of the body.
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