Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Chemistry Chapter 8
Review for Chapter 8 in Chemistry
Terms in this set (75)
Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer independently came to the same conclusion about what?
How elements should be grouped in the Periodic Table.
Who was credited mostly for the development of the Periodic table because he used chemical properties as well as predicted some missing elements and their expected properties?
The repetitive pattern of a property for elements based on atomic number.
Many properties ___________ on attractions between valence electrons and the nucleus
Electrons are both _____ to the nucleus and ______ by other electrons
Attracted ; Repelled
The forces an electron experiences depends on _________ and _______
The many properties attraction of the valence electrons and the nucleus depend on; that electrons are both repelled by electrons and attracted to the nucleus.
Effective nuclear charge
How is Z_eff found?
Z_eff = Z - S
Z = atomic number
S = screening constant
Effective nuclear charge is a
Effective nuclear charges decreased across a _____ and decreases down a ____
van der Waals radius (nonbonding atomic radius) is
half the distance separating two nuclei during a collision of atoms
bonding atomic radius
half the internuclear distance when atoms are bonded
The bonding atomic radius tends to _________ from left to right across a period, and _______ from top to bottom of a group.
Arrange, as much as possible, the atoms B, C, AL, and Si in order of increasing size.
C < B < Si < Al
Arrange Be, C, K and Ca in order of increasing size
C < Be < Ca < K
What is determined by interatomic distances in ionic compounds?
Sizes of ions
Ionic size depends on, ___________, the ___________, and the ________ in which electrons reside.
nuclear charge; number of electrons; orbitals
Cations are ________ than their parent atoms.
In _______, the outermost electron is _____ and repulsions between electrons are ______.
cations; removed: reduced
Anions are _______ than their parent atoms.
In _____, electrons are _____ and repulsions between electrons are ________.
anions; added; increased
isoelectric series of ions
ions have the same number of electrons
Ionic size _____ with ______ nuclear charge
Arrange Mg2+, Ca2+, and Ca in order of increasing radius.
Ca > Ca2+ > Mg2+
Which of the following atoms is largest:
Arrange the ions K=, Cl-, Ca2+, and S2- in order of decreasing size.
S2- > Cl- > K+ > Ca2+
In the isoelectronic series Ca2+, Cs+, Y3+, which ion is largest?
The minimum energy required to remove an electro from the ground state of a gaseous atom or ion.
The first ionization energy is
That energy required to remove the first electron
Each level of ionization energy is
That energy required to remove the electron equal to the level
The higher the ionization the more _______ it is to remove an electron
when all valence electrons are removed it takes __________ to remove the next electron
Great deal more energy
First ionization energy is denoted by
I1 generally _______ across a period
I1 generally ______ down a group
The __ and ___ block elements shows a larger range of values for I1
The s- and p-
For I1, the_____ block generally increases slowly across the period
In I1, the _______ block elements wow omg small variations
_______ atoms have _________ I values
I values depend on ____________ and ___________ of the electron from the nucleus
Effective nuclear charge; average distance
The trend is not followed when the added valence electron in the next element ____________ and __________
Enters a new sublevel (higher energy sublevel) ; is the first electron to pair in one orbital of the sublevel
In ______, electrons are lost from the highest energy level (n value)
In _______, the electron configuration are filled to ns2np6
Write the electron configuration of Ca2+
Write the electron configurations for Co3+
Write the electron configuration of S2-
[Ne]3s23p6 = [Ar]
Write the electron configurations for Ga3+
Write the electron configuration of Cr3+
Write the electron configuration of Br-
the energy change accompanying the addition of an electron to a gaseous atom
Electron affinity is typically _____, so, for most elements, it is _______
General trend in electron Affinity:
_______________, across a period it generally _________.
Not much change in a group; increases
Three notable exceptions to the general trend in electron affinity is:
Group ____: ___ sublevel is full;
Group ___: __ is half full;
Group ___: __ sublevel is full;
2A; s; 5A; p; 8A; p
Metals tend to form ______
Nonmetals tend to form ______
Most elements in nature are
Properties of metals:
Conduct heat and electricity
Malleable and ductile
Solids at room temp (except mercury)
Low ionization energies/ form cations easily
Compounds formed between ____ and _____ tend to be ionic
_________- tend to be basic
______ are found on the right side of the periodic tables
Properties of Nometals:
Solid, liquid, or gas,
Solids are dull, brittle, poor conductors
Large negative electronegativitiy/ form anions readily
substance contains only ______ are molecular compounds
Most __________ are acidic
____________ have some characteristics of metals and some of nonmetals
Several ______ are electrical semiconductors (computer chips)
Elements in a group have _______ properties
_____ also exist within groups
Group 1A is
The alkali metals
Group 2A is
The alkaline earth metals
The oxygen group
The Noble Gases
_______ soft metallic solids
______ are found only in compounds in nature, not in their elemental forms
Alkali Metal properties:
Low densities and melting points
Low ionization energies
Sets with similar terms
Chemistry chapter 5
Chapter 5: The Periodic Law
Chem. Ch. 6
Other sets by this creator
C++ Programming Ch 2
C++ Programming Chapter 1
Chemistry Ch 2
Chemistry Ch 1 Review