Chapter 8 notes
Terms in this set (117)
What term is used to describe water being used to help break the bonds found between compounds?
which____(element) is added to NAD to reduce it.
______-CoA feeds directly into the Krebs cycle.
What term is used to describe proteins losing their 3D structure as a consequence of changes in the environmental conditions such as excessive heat or salt?
Adenine, Phosphate, Ribose
Which components contribute to the structure of ATP?
Found in DNA but not in ATP
The protein part of an enzyme which requires a coenzyme/cofactor to function is called a.
is the decomposition of complex compounds during cellular metabolism.
The molecule______is termed cellular "money" because it can be stored, spent, or transferred.
Redox reactions are generally always paired where one compound is oxidized and another is reduced.
are subatomic particles which carry a negative charge.
atom is most often involved in electron transfer reactions in biological systems.
During cellular metabolism, energy is either conserved as_____or lost as______.
the metabolic pathways that begin with glucose and yield two pyruvates?
Acid and Alcohol fermentation
Identify two different fermentation pathways.
The specific region on an enzyme that binds substrate is called a ______site.
which suffix denotes an enzyme?
The location of the Krebs cycle enzymes in eukaryotes is in the_______, while in prokaryotes the enzymes are found in the______.
Which feature of an enzyme is the "most" unique?
several____share regions of primary structure.
The loss of the normal or native shape of a protein due to chemical or physical disruption of tertiary structure is called protien______.
Loss of normal shape of a protein due to heat or other factor
which of the following macromolecules can commonly act as a catalyst?
A________is a biological catalyst., any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
is any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions.
which component of sugar (C,H,O) is often involved in electron transport in biological systems?
The electron transport machinery are found in the same locations for eukaryotes and prokaryotes.
The______is the term for a specific molecule on which an enzyme acts.
a part, substance, or element that lies beneath and supports another part,
substance, or element; the reactant in reactions catalyzed by enzymes
Which two levels of protein structure principally determine the active site of an enzyme?
this level of protein structure results from interactions between different polypeptides to
form a single functional unit
protein structure level that refers to folding due to interactions between R groups
Enzyme-substrate interactions are sometimes referred to as a "_____and Key" interaction.
Region of an enzyme where the substrate binds
what term is used to describe the location on an enzyme where the substrate binds.
The minimum amount of energy required for a reaction to proceed is termed the energy of______.
Composed principally of amino acids, _________act as biological catalyst, facilitating metabolic activities of the cell.
an enzyme acts as a______ that alters the rate of reaction without being changed by the reaction
Glycolysis, Krebs cycle
Identify the locations where proteins can enter catabolic cellular respiration.
1)Increasing enzyme concentration
2)Increasing substrate concentration
3)Increasing thermal energy via heat
methods of lowering activation energy in biological systems from most to least effective.
ATP has _____ phosphate groups.
Which term refers to adding a phosphate group?
The transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a molecule. Nearly all cellular
work depends on ATP energizing other molecules by phosphorylation
water concentration, temperature, salinity, pH
Identify any conditions which could affect enzyme function/denaturation.
the relative proportion of salt in a solution
a reaction in which electrons are transferred between atoms; also known as an oxidation-reduction reaction
In a redox reaction, one compound is ____ and another compound is ______.
When a compound GAINS electrons from an electron-donating compound.
In_______-_______ phosphorylation, phosphate groups are transferred from one molecule to AMP or ADP to form ATP.
the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a molecule. Nearly all cellular work depends on ATP energizing other molecules by phosphorylation
The nitrogenous base _____ is a component of ATP
several different alcohols can produce
Which is TRUE regarding alcohol fermentation within cells?
Sulfate, Carbonate, Nitrate
which oxidized compound can be used as a final electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration?
True or false: Heat energy often powers metabolic processes in cells.
is a byproduct of metabolic reactions and is not usable by biological systems.
"Biosynthesis" is also termed which of the following?
The process that synthesizes a complex molecule from simpler compounds, thus requiring energy.
the opposite of catabolism is
During exergonic reactions, energy is
In aerobic respiration,_____serves as the final electron acceptor.
True or False: Both aerobic and anaerobic respiration use oxygen as the final electron acceptor.
By the end of glycolysis, glucose is converted into 2,3-carbon_________molecules
any nonprotein molecule or ion that is required for the proper functioning of an enzyme. Cofactors can be permanently bound to the active site or may bind loosely with the substrate during catalysis.
True or false: Cofactors participate directly in chemical reactions with the enzyme-substrate complex.
________help bring the active site and substrate close together.
is an enzyme in the mitochondrial cristae that harnesses the flux of hydrogen ions across the membrane during oxidative phosphoylation.
Which of the following is best associated with the electron transport system?
the production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron
transport chain; the third major stage of cellular respiration
The letters in ATP represent the words______ _____.
coenzymes, small organic molecules, and metal ions
Which of the following represent cofactors?
During aerobic respiration of one molecule of glucose, 34 ATP are generated by_______phosphorylation in the Electron Transport System.
What is a term used to describe a catabolic pathway where the end product inhibits the pathway?
which is NOT a common coenzyme carrier in cells?
______and______ are coenzymes derived from B vitamins.
Faculatative and Aerotolerant anaerobic microbes
do not require oxygen for the function of the ETS.
Often,______will bind within an enzymes active site and produce a unique active site for the substrate.
be bound to Coenzyme A
To enter Krebs cycle, pyruvate must:
activating the gene responsible for a particular enzyme
is a complex organic molecule, often derived from vitamins, that acts in conjunction with an enzyme.
Anaerobic respiration implies that______is NOT used as a final electron acceptor.
genes must be induced
In order to increase enzyme concentration________.
is the cellular process of taking monomers of compounds and producing polymers. (e.g., amino acids are combined to make protiens)
the inhibition of enzyme synthesis by the end product of a catabolic pathway occurs in enzyme_______.
True or false: Ethanol is the only alcohol produced during alcoholic fermentation.
produces ethanol, isopropanol and butanol.
Which of the following is the "quickest" compound to enter catabolic cellular respiration?
Which of the following compounds is typically used as an electron "carrier" bringing electrons to the electron transport system?
Substrate level phosphorylation
Excluding ETS, what method is used to generate ATP in the cell?
is the combination of all reactions (catabolic +anabolic) within a cell.,
The combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or
breaks down materials
Identify which of the following can be anabolically produced with intermediates produced in the Krebs cycle.
Electron transport chain
What is the fate reduced coenzymes generated in glycolysis and the krebs cycle?
several alternative pathways
In cells, the biosynthesis of carbohydrates involves:
Compounds are called _____when they can be easily denatured, distorted and/or degraded by mild changes to the environment.
which two levels of protein structure principally damaged by denaturation?
the action of the enzyme
Most enzymes are named to reflect which of the following?
Bonding capability between the active site amino acids and substrate.
what determines the uniqueness of the active site of an enzyme?
Which is NOT a physical condition needed for optimal function of an enzyme?
How many bonds must be broken to form AMP from ADP?
Electron carriers shuttle ______ and hydrogen____.
Which of the following compounds provides the energy to form and break chemical bonds?
mixed acid fermentation
pyruvic acid that results in more than one organic acid being produced
process in which fixed nitrogen compounds are converted back into nitrogen gas and returned to the atmosphere at the end of nitrogen cycle
Fats are composed of fatty acids joined to a _____ backbone.
To make AMP from ATP, __ phosphate bonds must be broken. (number)
True or False: lipid components can enter metabolic pathways.
In aerobic respiration, one molecule of glucose yields ten total NADH's which produce__(number) ATP through oxidative phophorylation.
means chemically unstable
water concentration, pH, salinity, temperature
Identify any conditions which could affect enzyme function/denaturation.
has 1 phosphate group
a charge gradient exists between the inner and outer membrane during chemiosmosis
The________motive _______describes the formation of a hydrogen ion gradient which powers ATP production using the electron transport system.
True or False; Enzymes are typically induced in the presence of other enzymes.
Since FADH feeds into the ETS, one molecule of glucose yields two FADH2 which then produces__ (number) ATP from the ETS.
Which of the following is the only metabolic pathway of cellular respiration which generates FADH?
NAD, FAD,and NADP all work in their own ways to "feed" the electron transport system.
What compound is composed of a heme component which can shuttle electrons trough the ETS during respiration
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