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AP Comparative Gov CHINA
Terms in this set (49)
All-China Federation of Trade Unions
The All-China Federation of Trade Unions is the sole national trade union federation of the People's Republic of China. It is the largest trade union in the world with 134 million members in 1,713,000 primary trade union organizations.
All-China Women's Federation
An organization of women established in China in March 1949. It was constructed as a mass organization supported by the Communist Party of China, and based on Marxist theory. The basic functions of the federation are to represent and safeguard the rights and interests of women and promote equality between men and women.
Exercises the powers of Congress between sessions.
Chinese Communist Party
Political party formed in 1921 with the leader of Mao Zedong. Opposed by the Nationalist party.
A conservative philosophy that conceived of society and the polity terms of an ordered hierarchy of harmonious relationships. Blurred distinction between state and society, seeing harmony as the natural social order.
A radical reform in China initiated by Mao Zedong in 1965 and carried out largely by the Red Guard; intended to eliminate counterrevolutionary elements in the government it resulted in purges of the intellectuals and socioeconomic chaos.
Occurred from 1978-1979, where Deng Xioaping publicly approved many of the demands posted on the Democracy Wall and published in unofficial journals, which called for a "reversal of verdicts" on individual and political events.
In democratic centralism, democracy refers mainly to consultation - it requires that the party leaders provide opportunities for discussion, criticism, and proposals in party organizations (often including lower party organizations) as party of the normal process of deciding important issues or making policy.
Communist Party leader who forced Chinese economic reforms after the death of Mao Zedong.
dictatorship of the proletariat
In Marxist socio-political thought, the dictatorship of the proletariat refers to a socialist state in which the proletariat, or the working class, has control of political power.
The Five-Year Plans of China are a series of economic development initiatives. The economy was shaped by the Chinese Communist Party through the plenary sessions of the Central Committee and national congresses.
The fragmentation of formal authority and its resolution by formal and informal coordinating mechanisms at the top of the system have led some scholars to characterize the Chinese system as one of fragmented authoritarianism.
The General Secretary the highest ranking official within the Communist Party of China, a standing member of the Politburo and head of the Secretariat.
Government-Organized Non-Government Organization. GONGOs are set up
like governments to look like NGOs, and therefore qualify for outside aid or mitigate specific issues related to in-country work or international relations. Often GONGOs are set up by undemocratic governments in order to maintain some level of control of the GONGO's personnel, purpose, operation, or activities.
Great Leap Forward
A five-year plan proposed by Mao to develop industry and agriculture simultaneously by 1) The labor-intensive mass mobilization of peasants to increase agriculture output by building irrigation facilities, and 2) the organization of primitive production processes to give inputs to agriculture without taking resources from industry.
Describes the main relationship between the Communist Party and society. The party bases its claim to legitimate rule not on representation of the expressed preferences of a majority but on representation of the "historic best interest" of the people. (People do not know their own best interests)
Hong Kong was a British Colony for nearly a century, ruled by a governor appointed in London. Hong Kong flourished economically.
The president of the PRC is head of state. This is a purely ceremonial office, held by Hu Jintao.
leading small group (LSG)
LSGs are headed by leaders at the top tier of the party - they have sweeping mandates to preside over policy research, formulation of policy proposals, sponsorship of policy experiments.
They are a crucial coordinating mechanism in the policymaking process.
Emerged as leader of the Communist party in the mid-1930sm consolidating his leadership in the early 1940s.
The political, economic, and social principles and policies advocated by Karl Marx that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded.
Informs guardianship - This is a method of leadership that seeks to learn from the masses and immerse the political leadership in the concerns and conditions of the masses. It was developed by Mao Zedong during the Chinese revolution.
mass mobilization campaign
Intensive, large-scale disruption implemented by grass-roots leaders during the Maoist regime.
Ministry of Defense
The MND itself only serves as liaison body representing the CMC (Central Military Commission) and PLA when dealing with foreign militaries in military exchange and cooperation.
Became the most prominent political and military force by the 1920s. Had their strongest social base in urban areas rather than urban areas - but wanted to unify China.
National Party Congress
Body of over 2,000 delegates chosen primarily from congresses on lower levels; meets every 5 years to rubberstamp decisions by party leaders; main power: elect members of the Central Committee.
National People's Congress (NPC)
The legislative branch of the People's Republic of China.The weakest of the three main political institutions. They formerly unanimously approved all motions proposed by the CCP, but now it takes an active role in drafting legislation and approving the annual budget. Its three thousand members are elected by lower-level "People's
Congresses." It is not a democratic deliberative body. It elects the President.
The former soviet communist party's system of controlling all important
administrative appointments, thereby ensuring the support and loyalty of those who managed day-to-day affairs.
one-child family policy
A policy implemented with the hopes of capping the large population growth in China, where each family is allowed to have only one child.
one country, two systems
An idea originally proposed by Deng Xiaoping, then the Paramount
Leader of the People's Republic of China, for the reunification of China during the early 1980s. He suggested that there would be only one China, but independent Chinese regions such as Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan could have their own capitalist economic and political systems, while the rest of China uses the socialist system.
A political system in which power flows directly from the ruling political party (usually a communist party) to the state, bypassing government structures.
People's Liberation Army (PLA)
Includes the navy, air force, and army, and has played a major role in Chinese politics. After 1949, the PLA has participated in important nonmilitary functions, such as economic construction.
An executive committee created for a number of communist political parties. These
were first created after the Russian Revolution in order to provide representation among the
different communist factions.
The premier is Wen Jiabao - he is the head of government.
The president is Hu Jintao - he is the head of the party and state.
rule by law
Recognition that laws exist and all are subject to them equally.
The Secretariat is the permanent bureaucracy of the Communist Party of China and forms a parallel structure to state organizations in the People's Republic of China.
socialist market economy
The term used by the government of China to refer to the country's current economic system. It is meant to convey the mix of state control (socialism) and market forces (capitalism) that China is now following in its quest for economic development. The implication is that socialism will promote equality, while the market (especially the profit motive) will encourage people to work hard and foreign companies to invest.
special economic zones
In 1979, the Chinese government set up these zones on the coast near Macao, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Improved transportation, lower taxes, and other incentives attracted investments from foreign businesses. They helped stimulate innovation and helped China grow economically.
A committee of 150 members of the National People's Congress and has the constitutional authority to modify legislation within limits set by the NPC, and thus acts as a de facto legislative body.
Exercises executive functions in Chinese government.
An enterprise that is run by state, owned by the government.
Taiwan (Republic of China)
Governed by Nationalists as the Republic of China since 1945. Even though it is the sole legitimate representative of China, fewer than thirty countries today recognize Taiwan.
When the Democratic Movement was crushed with tanks and machine guns on June 4, 1989.
an Asian country located in the Himalayas under the control of China.
A group of Turkic-speakers who controlled their own centralized empire from 744 to 840 in Mongolia and Central Asia.
the law defines village committees as "autonomous mass organizations of self-government", popularly elected in elections featuring choice among candidates for three-year terms and accountable to a village council comprised of all adult villagers.
World Trade Organization
An international organization based in Geneva that monitors and enforces rules governing global trade.
A youth movement of the People's Republic of China for youth between the ages of fourteen and twenty-eight, run by Communist Party of China. The league is organized on the party pattern.
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