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IB Psych Sociocultural Terms and Learning outcomes: Guiney
Terms in this set (59)
Outline principles that define the sociocultural level of analysis
Principle #1: Human Beings are Social Animals with a basic need to "belong" -
Tajfel and Turner (1979)
Baumeister and Leary (1995) -> Theory
Principle #2: Culture factors influence Human Behaviour -
Principle #3: Humans have a Social Self which reflects their Group Memberships -
Tajfel and Turner (1979)
Tajfel and Turner (1979) -> Social Identity Theory
Bandura et al. (1961)
Bandura (1961) -> Social Learning Theory
Principle 4: People's views of the world are resistant to change and developed by the community and culture
Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the sociocultural level of analysis
Experiments: variable's effect on another variable in causal terms,+: repeated, controlled, cause and effect, data easily measured -:low EV, unethical, demand characteristics
Asch (1955): conformity
Observations: description of a subject's behavior, high EV, qualitative, natural environment, generalizing, cannot repeat
Charlton et al. (1994-200): introduction of TV St Helena
Discuss ethical considerations related to research studies at the sociocultural level of analysis
Ethical guidelines: consent, right of withdrawal, debriefing confidentiality
Ross et al. (1977): (audience, contestant, host), - student sample usually have teachers how have authority, most ethical as it follows the guidelines.
Bandura et al. (1961): Bobo Doll, induced aggression, long term affects, low EV, informed consent from parents, sample size, no gender bias
Describe the role of situational and dispositional factors in explaining behaviour
Reasons why a person would behave a certain way
Attribute behaviour since humans are "social animals"
Dispositional attribution: personality (individual positive, etc.) Situational attribution: surrounding factors
Zimbardo (1971): Stanford Prison Experiment
Discuss two errors in attributions
Attribute behaviour since humans are "social animals"
Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE): attributing another's behaviour to dispositional qualities, rather than the situation itself, even when situational factors present
Ross et al. (1977): (audience, contestant, host)
Evaluate social identity theory, making reference to relevant studies
Tajfel relates to principle (humans have a social self)
Social categorization: in-group, out-group. Social identification: Identify with in-group. Social comparison: in-group positive, out-group less positive
Tajfel (1970): preference for paintings
Explain the formation of stereotypes and their effect on behaviour
Social categorization to simplify
Stereotype: mental representation of individual, characteristics attributed to all members of group, e.g. gender, race
Aronson and Steele (1995): Stereotype Threat, black vs. white verbal test, 2 groups told either lab task or pronunciation test, believed in stereotypes
Explain social learning theory, making reference to two relevant studies
Norms: social/cultural rules based on beliefs of how to behave
Social Learning Theory: attention, retention, replicate, motivation, gatekeepers
Bandura et al. (1961): Bobo Doll
Gergely et al (2002) 14-month old infants, 2 conditions: Hands-Free Condition, Hands-Occupied Condition
Discuss the use of compliance techniques
Compliance: direct influence of group on individuals behaviour
Cialdini: authority, commitment, reciprocity, scarcity
Foot-in-the-door: asking for a small request, then larger
Dickerson et al (1992): university students to conserve water in the dorm shower
Evaluate research on conformity to group norms.
Conformity: tendancy to adjust behaviour to group or standard
Asch (1951): test conformity, 1 participate, group of confederate, asked about length in lines, groups answered wrong on purpose, subject did as well at least once
Discuss factors influencing conformity
Cultural: individualism (less conformity because independent), collectivism (more conformity for harmony), used Asch study in different countries, above results
Unanimity: conformity when everyone agrees to a point
Define the terms "culture" and "cultural norms".
Culture: system of rules, established by a social group, Surface culture: (visible, explicit) music, clothing, food, Deep culture: (invisible, implicit), emotions, beliefs, expressions
Cultural norms: social/cultural rules based on shared beliefs of how to behave
Examine the role of two cultural dimensions on behaviour
Collectivism: harmonious society, higher level of affection towards family members, conform more for harmony
Individualism: interest of individual above interest of group, ties between people loose, Individual thoughts are encouraged, so lower level of conformity
Using one or more examples, explain "emic" and "etic" concepts.
Etic: cross-culture approach
Kashima and Triandis (1986): American vs Japanese describe success, Americans dispositional (self-serving bias) and Japanese situational
Emic: studying one specific culture to understand it through their eyes
Mead (1935): cultural variations in 3 different tribes of New Guinea, Arapesh people, Mundugamor, Tchambuli, how society scan influence gender-role development.
the branch of psychology that deals with social interactions, including their origins and their effects on the individual.
two or more people who interact with one another, share similar characteristics, and collectively have a sense of unity.
the study of how psychological and behavioral tendencies are rooted in and embodied in culture.
interdisciplinary field devoted to understanding how biological systems implement social processes and behavior, and to using biological concepts and methods to inform and refine theories of social processes and behavior.
When attributing the cause of people's behavior to their internal characteristics, we are making a dis-positional attribution.
refers to somebody's beliefs, attitudes, and personality.
When we attribute people's behavior to external factors such as the immediate rewards and punishments in a social setting or social pressure, we are making a situational attribution.
the process by which individuals explain the causes of behavior and events. The development of models to explain these processes is called attribution theory.
a theory that supposes that one attempts to understand the behavior of others by attributing feelings, beliefs, and intentions to them.
a distinguishing quality or characteristic, typically one belonging to a person
the magnitude to which a psychological trait is expressed in the exact same, or in an operationally equal, way in varying social settings.
refers to the psychological coherence of an individual's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors across development. Questions about heterogeneity stability concern the degree of consistency in underlying personality attributes.
the theory set forth by psychologist Albert Bandura which states that a person's behavior both influences and is influenced by personal factors and the social environment. Bandura accepts the possibility that an individual's behavior may be conditioned through the use of consequences.
in which most people react in a similar way
contain little pressure as to an appropriate behavior.
Fundamental Attribution error
This term refers to a bias to attribute others' behavior to stable internal causes rather than external circumstances.
self-serving bias (SSB)
when we explain our successes on the basis of internal, dispositional factors and blame our failures to external, situational
factors. Such biased attributions are viewed by many as serving the interests of preserving
or increasing self-esteem.
an individual belongs (us)
the individual does not belong (them).
category accentuation effect
reduces perceived variability within the ingroup (we are similar to one another)
• reduces perceived variability in the outgroup (they are all the same)
• increases perceived variability between the ingroup and the outgroup (we are different
This exaggeration of group differences and intragroup similarities
any perception, cognition, or behaviour that is influenced by people's recognition that they and others are members of distinct social groups.
we determine our own social and personal worth based on how we stack up against others.
the motivation to show that our ingroup is preferable to an outgroup.
minimal group paradigm
This technique defines ingroups and outgroups
on arbitrary criteria such as tossing a coin.
a fixed, over generalized belief about a particular group or class of people
the phenomenon whereby observers conclude that two factors are associated despite the lack of any real association between them.
the phenomenon of disadvantaged groups tending to internalize the negative stereotypes of themselves held by others.
The social-representations theory
are the shared beliefs of the society we live in or the group to which we
the stereotype threat effect
the performance impairment that results when individuals asked to carry out a task
are made aware of a negative stereotype held against them regarding their group's ability to
perform well in that task.
social learning theory
Behaviouristic theories of learning are essentially theories of conditioning and emphasize
the role of reinforcement in learning. Moreover, conditioning is viewed as a direct form of learning based on direct forms of reinforcement.
observational learning, we learn by observing and imitating others. We observe the behaviour of others and notice the consequences it has on them and their environments.
Our present behaviours are largely governed by internalized outcome
The model's behaviour and its consequences must be attended to by the
learner. Research shows that more attractive, distinctive and powerful models are better
Coding and memory
The behaviour of the model needs to be properly encoded and stored in the learner's memory in ways that allow both for immediate imitation or
imitation that is delayed.
that learning extends beyond the imitation of others' behaviours to include the learning of more abstract skills, a type of learning
refers to a person's belief in their own effectiveness in specific
Normative has specialized meanings in different academic disciplines such as philosophy, social sciences, and law.
a form of social influence involving direct requests from one person to another.
The FITD technique
aims at increasing compliance with a large request by first asking people to go along with a smaller request.
which is the private acceptance of social norms
which is overt behavior consistent with social norms that are not privately accepted
a psychological and social phenomenon where people assume the actions of others in an attempt to reflect correct behavior in a given situation. This is contrasted with normative social influence wherein a person conforms to be liked or accepted by others.
underlies our conformity to the expectations of others. This type of influence is based on our need to be liked and be accepted by others.
A social psychological term that refers to the ways in which people identify themselves and focus their goals. Individualism, which is the opposite of collectivism, gives priority to personal goals.
relates to the manner in which humans identify themselves and prioritize their goals. Collectivism, which is the opposite of individualism, focuses on the priorities of the group and not the individual.
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