314 Skin and Hair Exam 2

layers of skin (from outside-innermost):
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Terms in this set (83)
what is nevus simplex?"stork bite" caused by dilation of small capillaries; regress spontaneouslywhat is xerosis asteatosis?dry skin (skin itches and looks flaky and loose)Paper-thin, transparent skin, & wrinkles are normal with aging due to?decreased elastin & subcutaneous tissuewhat are actinic lentigo (liver spots)?Clusters of melanocytes on dorsa of hands & forearms (Normal with aging)Cherry (senile) hemangiomasmultiple erythematous to dark-purple papules, usually located on the trunk very common & arise in middle-aged to older adultswhat are acrochodons?"skin tags"=overgrowths of normal skin that forms a stalk -increase in freq through the 5th decade -more common in diabeticsturgor=the amount of skin elasticity and hydrationwhat can alter skin turgor?water content & agingpoor skin turgor is evidenced by?"tenting" of the skin, with a gradual return to the originalwhy does the hair of older adults turn gray or white?because they experience a decrease in the number of functional melanocytes3 common nail changes in older adults:1. gradual thickening of the nail plate 2. longitudinal ridges 3. yellowish gray discolorationSkin/mucous membrane color comes from:melanin carotene oxyhemoglobin deoxyhemoglobin bilirubinwhat is cyanosis? what causes it?bluish color of the skin & mucous membranes cyanosis results from an increased amount of reduced Hgb (deoxyhemoglobin)what is central cyanosis? what causes it?cyanosis of mucous membranes & tongue due to inadequate pulmonary oxygenation or an abnormal Hgbwhat is peripheral cyanosis? what causes it?cyanosis of fingers/extremities due to vasoconstriction & diminished peripheral blood flowpallor is the result of?lowered hemoglobin content (pallor=when someone pulls their eyelid down and no pink blood vessels can be seen)jaundice=excess bilirubin-->orange eyes/skincarotenoderma/carotenemia=excess intake of carotene-->orange eyes/skinerythema:Redness of the skin due to capillary dilatation often caused by inflammationwhat are ephedlides?freckles: small light brown macules appearing in sun-exposed skinwhat is a cafe-au-lait?a light brown, oval macule that may be foundanywhere on the body 1.5 cm in greatest diameterhow can you detect pallor in a dark skinned patient?by first inspecting the mucous membranes for an ash gray colorwhat is a primary lesion?a lesion that results from a specific causative factor; develops on previously unaltered skinwhat are macules?(freckles, flat moles, rubella) flat lesions of less than 1 cm in diameter. Their color is different from that of the surrounding skin- most often white, red, or brownwhat are patches?(vitiligo, cafe-au-lait) macules that are larger than 1 cm in diameterwhat are papules?(warts, elevated moles) small, firm, elevated lesions less than 1 cm in diameterwhat are plaques?(psoriasis, seborrheic keratosis) elevated, plateau-like patches more than 1 cm in diameter that do not extend into the lower skin layerswhat are nodules?elevated, marble-like lesions more than 1 cm wide and deepwhat are cysts?nodules filled with either liquid or semisolid material that can be expressedwhat are bullae?(second degree burns) blisters filled with clear fluid; more than 1 cm in diameterwhat are vesicles?blisters that are less than 1 cm in diameterwhat are pustules?(acne, acute impetigo) vesicles filled with cloudy or purulent fluidwhat are secondary lesions?changes to the skin that happen over time; or a change to a primary lesionwhat are wheals?(insect bites) elevated, irregularly shaped, transient areas of dermal edemawhat are fissures?(athletes foot) linear cracks in the epidermis, which often extend into the dermiswhat is atrophy?thinning of the skin surface with loss of skin markings, may result in skin depressionwhat are lichenifications?palpably thickened areas of epidermis with accentuated skin markings; caused by chronic rubbing and scratchingwhat are ulcers?deep erosions that extend beneath the epidermis and involve the dermis and sometimes the subcutaneous fatwhat are erosions?wider than fissures but involve only the epidermisannular:ringlike with raised borders around flat, clear centers of normal skincircumscribed:well-defined with sharp borderscoalesced:lesions that merge with one another and appear confluentdif use:widespread, involving most of the body with intervening areas of normal skin; generalizedserpiginous:with wavy borders, resembling a snakeuniversal:all areas of the body involved, with no areas of normal appearing skinBleeding into the tissue is abnormal & results in?purpuric lesions red or purple discolorations on the skin that do not blanch on applying pressurewhat are petechiae?small, reddish purple lesions (1 - 3 mm) that do not blanch when pressure is applied; indicate increased capillary fragility (sometimes associated w/aging; more commonly due to coagulation defects)what are purpura?extensive patch of nonblanching petechiaewhat are ecchymoses?(bruises) larger areas of hemorrhage that range in size from several millimeters to many centimeters; causes: certain drugs (e.g., aspirin, warfarin, corticosteroids), trauma, or low platelet countstevens-johnson syndrome:-rare, life threatening cytotoxic hypersensitivity reaction -extensive necrosis & detachment of the epidermis & lesions of the oral, conjunctival, & vaginal mucous membranes -often drug induced; sometimes idiopathicABCDE of skin cancer:A: assymetrical B: borders are ragged, irregular, or blurred C: color is varied within the same lesion D: diameter is larger than 6 mm (and size is enlarging) E: evolving, changes in shape, size, elevation, etcNail plate:fully keratinized; continuously produced throughout lifenail matrix:site of growth; protected by cuticlelunula:white crescent-shaped area that extends beyond cuticle; the visible portion of the nail matrixcolor of the nail plate depends on?Thickness Transparency Amount of red blood cells Arterial blood flow Pigment depositswhen blanching a nail, color should normally return in ____ seconds2 seconds or lessNail shape changes may be related to?systemic disease (e.g. fingernail clubbing occurs with impaired gas exchange; anemias may result "spoon" nails, with a concave shape)what is clubbing? -what is it associated with?bulbous swelling of soft tissue of terminal phalanx of a digit; loss of normal angle between nail & nail bed Associated with impaired gas exchange due to pulmonary, cardiovascular, infectious, neoplastic, & other disorderswhat is schamroth sign?loss of normal diamond shape formed when right and left thumbs are opposed in a person with clubbing of the fingerswhat are beau lines?Transverse, band-like depressions in nail occur after any severe, sudden, acute illness; severe reactions to drugs/cytotoxic drugs (chemotherapy)what is onycholysis?detachment of nail from its bed at distal &/or lateral attachmentswhat is onychomycosis?invasion of the nail by funguscells of the ____ matrix are responsible for forming hairs. these cells undergo repeated ____, push upward in the follicle, & become keratinized to form a hairgerminal mitosisA common type of baldness occurs when two requirements are met:genes for baldness + male sex hormones (androgens)what term means "male baldness"?androgenic alopeciadandruff is caused by?excessive oil production ( it is NOT due to dry scalp!!)If severe inflammatory dandruff is not treated, _____ can occurhair losswhat is pediculosis?infestation with any of several kinds of licelouse require _____blood; they feed several times a dayinfestation of louse causes?pruritus (itching)what causes spoon nails/concave nails?anemiasite of nail growth?nail matrixHirsutism:excessive hairiness on women in those parts of the body where terminal hair does not normally occur or is minimal - for example, a beard