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AP Euro Test One
Terms in this set (51)
rebirth or cultural and intellectual pursuits after the dark ages where nothing was really... happy good or expressive
Change in Art
it goes to realism, expression with vanishing points and perspective-- there are bodies formed
What factors influenced the shift in art?
Greco-Roman influence from classicism. Other aspects of the time like secularism, humanism, individualism (which played into the use of faces) influenced the art as well. There was a lot of symmetry and balance in classicism.
an effect of contrasted light and shadow created by light falling unevenly or from a particular direction on something.
blending of colors
they become a classical tradition modeled after Greek mythology statues that were older
Why was there a drop off in the art? Like why was there nothing to model it after or why some historians say it's not really an all of the sudden "awakening"
the black death was like a break in time, so nothing really goes on during that
Massacio's The Trinity
There are six important figures-- god is the largest (larger than life) and as the people get smaller, they are less important. The holy trinity is present
works on perceptiveness and is very mathematical in his artistic approach
Expulsion from the Garden
first nude painintg, clear expression of emotion
School of Athens
secular work, it is separate from the church bc there is no religious ties
Virgin on the Rocks
Davinci and he used naturalism
Michelangelo's painting of god creating Adam conveys that people knew they were living in a special time
What art form does renaissance art turn into?
Mannerism which was off balance and a very extreme version of things
What was a key difference between the renaissance and the northern renaissance?
Christian humanism!! More focused on religion and it is included more in the art works... used texts of original church and the art was grounded in the church... also more writings and less art although the art had more detail and richer colors
How are monarch ruling differentl during the Northern Renaissance period?
More concrerley. They are going around the nobles to the merchants... taking power from nobles
What was the first thing printed when the printing press was invented and what does it show?
A bible and it shows the focus on CHRISTIAN humanism
What did the printing press do?
Aids in the growth of vernacular and a common language... in a way it unifies the north. Also allowed for the spread of new ideas. Think: Protestant reformation
How did the printing press influence art?
Durer made engravings on his sculptures (vernacular) and he also printed his art so there is wide spread distribution of art-- not just for wealthy patrons
What did Erasmus do in his book The Praise of Folly? What funny thing happens as a result?
He criticizes the catholic church by applying humanism to their ideals. He is satirizing the hypocritical of the church, betraying the old church. When the 99 Theses comes out, everyone assumes it is him! HAHAHAHA
What did Thomas Moore do in his book Utopia?
Shows an ideal world, an ideal England. By showing a perfect world, he exposes everything that is imperfect about the real world. In the book, there is communal ownership of land.
Who were the mystics and what did they believe?
A section of the church that believed that in order to be a Christian, you needed to look and act like Jesus. They believed that through solitude, they could have a personal experience with god
Were not prescribed to a particular church and by doing this feed the flame of the renaissance
Why did the age of exploration happen in Europe?
Constantinople had just been conquered so there was no silk road and traditional routes were blocked. There were also new technologies, like the astrolabe. Warfare has ended because the war class ceased to exist. Primogeniture means people need a place to go. More people desire goods and spices, the Christians could not defeat the Muslims, so they move East. Lastly, England did not have that much to offer due to lack of natural resources, so they needed to trade!
Who was the army of the pope and what did they take part in?
The Jesuits were the army of the pope and they took part in the counter revolution. They go to western Asia and Xavier blends their culture with catholic religion-- this creates more conflict between Catholics and Protestants
What was some new tech in the fifteenth century?
Astrolabe, Portulan maps, sextant, compass, latten sail/rudder, caravel, galley
Who were the main explorers and what did they want?
Dias, De Gama, Cortes all wanted personal glory and glory for their nations. This comes from a humanist tradition!
What happened when the eastern hemisphere was discovered?
Colonies become a place of competition for monarchies and the king doesn't have to give land to the nobles so mercantilism develops
Why were Spain and Portugal in conflict and how did the rest of Europe factor into that?
Both wanted to settle south america so the pope creates the line of tosedillas. Some of Europe is protestant so they do not have to listen to the pope and they settle the land anyway
Who led Portugal's age of exploration? About him a lil'
Prince Henry the Navigator did not have diplomacy with Arab countries, he just went and conquered
What is happening as Portugal is sailing around the globe?
They are breaking up European trade monopolies by offering new and expensive goods
Who led Spain's age of exploration?
1492 you know who sailed the ocean blue bitch! Spain is straight up dominating the Iberian Peninsula while my guy CC sails into the new world. Being the money grubbing fool he was, he searched for gold which started this tradition of conquest for Spain! Ugh!
Who revolutionized the concept of the world and how?
This truckin legend names Magellan sailed the South American coast (before he ****ed it all up and got killed) to try to beat out the Portuguese. Idk what happened man, but he changed everyone's perception of the world.
What did the treaty of torsedillas motivate kings to do?
Become protestant bc then they wouldn't have to listen to that sorry son of a bitch... sorry not sorry
How were Spanish colonies ruled? What does this lead to?
With the encomienda system which was pretti brutal if I so say so myself. So brutal the natives were like nah fuq this, we outtie. So they ran away and fought back since they knew the land SO MUCH better (and were smarter lol) so then the Spanish are left with no one to do their work for them, so they bring in slaves to the Americas. Ouch.
What did Spain do wrong upon settling the New World?
These ass hats did not invest their money... like bitch u dumb as hell. So they just spend spend spend and print print print but there is no money being made so they fall on their asses and go bankrupt. Oh spain, had to do the walk of shame...
What happened in the Price Revolution?
Rise in Prices, increased prosperity which leads to an increased standard of living-- partly due to the commercial revolution which helped to grow Europeans economy
What was the council of the indies?
ruled by viceroys who represent the kings in the colonies
What was the capital recovltion?
SLOW and a shift to a capitalist economy, was a shift from a town centered to nation centered system
What did gloablization cause?
An interdependence among nations (spain got grain from poland)
What caused the commercial revolution?
The black death and the changing dynamics from the age of exploration
What did the growing commerce in the commercial revolution cause?
exspansion of cities which caused traditional political and social structures stressed from growth --> people are moving into cities and there are more social classes
What were the Yeoman farmers?
A class in England that was growing-- small middle class farms. They were able to hold farms due to the price revolution and free hold tenure
Who were the new economic elite in cities? What do they show?
Gentry who were merchants and land lords. They show that social classes are stretching and are causing nobility to fade in power because they are gaining political power
What were the East India Companies?
they were companies established to establish and direct trade throughout asia. they had the power to mint money, make treaties, and even raise their own armies
What stayed the same in Europe during the commercial revoltuion?
many are still farmers and have lives oriented around the seasons. People revolove aroudn their villages with things like the Chiralri, families become nuclear
What happens to the marriage age?
As the economy gets more difficult, the marriage age decreases
What about women during the Com Rev?
They had less aces to resources and are poorer which leads to witch trials
What did Othello by Shakesphere signify?
a new culture developing and the modern English language. has a sense of moral ambiguity: what is right and wrong is all thrown together.... also the mass media is outside of the churches grasp! nothing they can do
What did Michell de Montain believe?
he just doubted everything, he says there are no absolutes and there is nothing to say we are better than anyone else!
What were the new patterns of investment?
Large business start practicing new business techniques and banks begin to insure
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