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Renaissance and Reformation Review
Terms in this set (60)
This "rebirth" in Western Europe was really a rediscovery of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It was a period of creativity in the arts and new ideas.
This Renaissance intellectual movement emphasized the worth and dignity of the individual. Every person was unique with unique talents and abilities. Every person was special and important. The individual was valued.
This Renaissance perspective encouraged looking at the world through a non-religious lens. Rather than finding explanations through religion, it encouraged a non-religious perspective. It encouraged asking questions and answering with the intelligent mind and not some supernatural explanation. It encouraged reason or logical thinking.
Perspective in Art
It is the technique of creating the illusion of three dimensions on a two-dimensional surface. It is creating almost photographic detail or a person or scene on a canvas. It was very important in Renaissance art.
This Renaissance thinker wrote "The Prince". In his political treatise, he wrote that a ruler had to keep his power by any means necessary. A ruler had to be ruthless and even violent. As he wrote, "It is better to be feared than loved." Men obey those they fear.
The Ends Justify the Means
This Machiavellian idea essentially supports the idea that a person may do whatever is necessary to achieve his goal. For example, if the goal is to be king, then a person can kill in order to achieve this goal.
It is the language of the people. It is the language that the people speak. For example, in the Italian peninsula during the Renaissance, people spoke Italian not Latin. But many books were written in Latin. Since people did not speak Latin, Latin was not the language of the people. They could not understand it.
He was a Renaissance humanist. He wrote about the Black Death. In his work, "The Decameron," he revealed how fine and fair people could dine at night and die in the morning. He showed the beautiful and the ugly side of life. He showed life as it was.
He was a Renaissance humanist. Some even consider him the father of humanism. He wrote beautiful verses about Laura, a woman he loved but a woman who died from the plague. He wrote poetry.
This Renaissance artist painted "The Birth of Venus." It is said that the model for the painting was his neighbor's wife. Yes, she was the wife of the great explorer, America Vespucci.
The Renaissance Man
It was a person of many talents and many abilities. It was a person who could write poetry, dance beautifully, sculpt magnificently and discuss the finest ideas. Some say that Leonardo da Vinci was this sort.
Leonardo da Vinci
He was a well-known Italian Renaissance artist, architect, musician, mathemetician, engineer, and scientist. He famously painted the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper.
He was a well-known Renaissance artist. He painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and he also was a talented sculptor.
Petrarch and Boccacio
These writers of the Renaissance were both humanists but they had their differences. One wanted to write mostly about beauty and love. The other wanted to write about life as it is and it is not always just beautiful. It is complicated. They had different visions of what a writer should emphasize.
"It is Better to Be Feared than Loved"
This is secular advice. It is not the kind of advice that Jesus would give but it was the kind of advice that Machiavelli would give. He believed that a ruler had to be obeyed in order to keep his power and only fear ensures obedience.
The Printing Press
This mechanical device was invented by Johann Gutenberg. It manufactured books quickly and therefore allowed for books to be sold at lower prices. It spread ideas from the Renaissance to the Reformation and beyond.
Each individual letter is cast on a separate piece of metal. It replaced woodblock printing, allowing for the arrangement of individual letters to be printed on a page. It is another name for the printing press.
The Northern Renaissance
Good ideas travel and the ideas of humanism, secularism and perspective in art were no different. Yet in England and elsewhere, it was a bit more religious and there was a bit more emphasis on reforming society and not just enjoying the pretty things of life.
This Dutch humanist and theologian was a leading Renaissance scholar of Northern Europe. He emphasized reforming society. He was critical of the luxury of the clergy and the immorality of priests.
Hans Holbein the Younger
This German Painter was noted for his portraits and religious paintings. He painted a very famous portrait of Henry VIII. It was almost photographic in detail. He was a painter of the Northern Renaissance.
An Effect of the Printing Press
Literacy increased. As more books were produced and more people could afford to buy books, more people could actually read. The only point in learning to read if there are actually books to read.
After an abusive childhood and a lightning storm, he became a monk. He taught Bible classes at the University of Wittenberg. He challenged the Roman Catholic Church.
These pardons from sin were sold by church officials. Some believed that these papers for pardons gave the illusion of buying heaven, of tickets to heaven. This outraged one man in particular.
He came to Wittenberg to sell indulgences to raise money to rebuild a church in Rome. He really infuratiated Luther. Luther felt he was a corrupt agent of a corrupt church.
The Nintety-Five Theses
They were essentially many arguments against the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church. One criticism was that only through faith alone could salvation be achieved. Salvation was a gift freely given by God according to the author of this document.
Justification by Faith Alone
Martin Luther came to believe that salvation could only be achieved through belief. It could not be earned with good works or prayer. It could not be bought with an indulgence. It could not be given by the Roman Catholic Church.
Salvation according to the Roman Catholic Church
Heaven could only be achieved through the church and the teachings of Christianity interpreted by the Pope. A person had to have the sacrament of confession; a person had to do good works. A person had to pray. But it was not just given.
Salvation according to Luther
Heaven was a gift freely given by God to an undeserving people. According to this belief, Jesus took the punishment of a sinful people and through his death and resurrection, a person could be saved. Thus, a person only had to believe and a person was saved.
The Authority in the Roman Catholic Church
The Pope is the ultimate interpreter of the Bible and the ultimate authority as to what Christians can and cannot do and how salvation is achieved.
The Authority in the Protestant Church
The Bible is the ultimate word of God. Only the Bible is the word of God according to these individuals and only through reading the Bible can the word of God be understood.
The Protestant Reformation
It was a religious movement that challenged the authority of the Roman Catholic Church. It sought to change the way Christianity was taught and practiced. It sought to make the Bible the authority.
It is to be cast out of the Roman Catholic Church. It means that no sacraments or official rites can be received. It means that a person can no longer participate in church services and rituals. It ultimately means that a person cannot be saved - at least according to the church at that time.
What Happened to Luther After His Refusal to Recant
He was excommunicated. He was cast out of the Roman Catholic Church. He was protected by German princes. This princes allowed him to survive and not be killed. He married a former nun and started his own church, the Lutheran Church.
How Did the Reformation Change Western Europe
It ended Christian unity. There was no longer one Christian church in Western Europe. There were now many Christian churches. The Roman Catholic Church lost some land and power, especially in the lands that chose Protestantism.
Why There are So Many Protestant Churches
The Bible is the authority and different people interpret the Bible differently. Ultimately, different people can read the same sentences and find different meanings. This leads to diversity of perspective.
He just really wanted an annulment. He just really wanted to marry another woman and have a son. His wife had only given birth to a daughter and his wife was already in her forties. He needed a male heir. He would do anything for a male heir.
Catherine of Aragon
As the first wife of Henry VIII, she did not want an annulment. She had been married for many years and given birth to his daughter. He did not want to be cast aside. Worse, she did not want to pretend the marriage never happened.
How Annulment Differs from Divorce
In one, the marriage is canceled. It is as if it never happened. This is what Henry VIII wanted. In the other, the marriage is recognized but ended. This is not allowed in the Roman Catholic Church.
The Act of Supremacy
It declared Henry VIII as the supreme head of the Church of England in 1534. It made the king the head of the church in England. The Pope was no longer the head of the church in England.
The Anglican Church
It is also known as the Church of England and it is what Henry VIII established when he finally got the divorce he had wanted. It has many of the same rites as the Catholic Church but it is not headed by the Pope. It is headed by the king.
Why the Pope did not give Henry VIII his annulment
Catherine of Aragon was the daughter of the very powerful king and queen of Spain, Ferdinand and Isabella. These powerful kings were defenders of Catholicism. To cancel Catherine's marriage to Henry VIII would have upset them greatly.
Sir Thomas More was executed because he
When Henry VIII formed the Church of England, he insisted that all church officials or clery accept him as the head of the church in England and not the pope. This man refused and paid a heavy price for his refusal.
He was a French theologian. He accepted many of Luther's ideas. He was even imprisoned for his Protestant ideas in Catholic France but he came to believe in predestination, an idea that differed from Luther's ideas.
It is one of the main beliefs of John Calvin. It stated that God already knew who would be saved. Calvinists believe that they will be saved and thus try to lead very moral lives as proof of their future salvation.
They wanted to purify the Church of England. They felt that the Church of England had too many Catholic rites and that it was more Catholic in its services than Protestant.
As the daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, when she came to power, she tried to restore the Church in England to a Catholic Church. She persecuted and killed many Protestants.
She was a great queen of England and after her sister, Mary, ruled, she returned England to Protestantism. She was a Protestant queen. She also never married. And she was queen when William Shakespeare wrote.
He was a great poet and playwright in England. He was also a Renaissance humanist. He wrote about love and life and the many complexities of being human.
Why Luther Became a Monk
He had planned to study law but a violent thunder and lightning storm frightened him. He prayed to Saint Anne and promised that he would become a monk if she spared him. And indeed he did become a monk.
Why Luther Wrote the Bible in the Vernacular
He believed that the Bible was the word of God. If a person was to understand the Bible, a person had to read it in a language that he understood. Since the Bible was the authority, it had to be read for understanding.
Why the Renaissance Began in Italy
It dominated trade in the Mediterranean Sea. Its city-states grew wealthy from trade. By transporting goods that entered the Mediterranean from Asia along the Silk Roads, Italian merchants could move those goods to the rest of Europe. With great wealth from trade, merchants could support artists and serve as patrons.
What Luther Believed About Life
He valued the simple life. A person's life should consist of plain food and plain clothes but a person's mind should be focused on God. Salvation mattered greatly to him and he took his religious life seriously.
The Impact of the Black Death on the Renaissance
After so much loss and suffering, there was a desire to celebrate life. There was a renewed interest in learning and living. A man was capable of so much. Life was to be explored and valued.
The Impact of Secularism on Society
When religion does not provide the only answers, science and scientific thinking can develop. People can find answers through reason, through observation and experimentation.
What Luther Said Before the Pope
Here I stand. I cannot do otherwise. In other words, I must follow my convictions. I must not take back my words because I fear punishment or even death. My truth is my truth.
The Impact of Humanism on Education
It recognizes that each child is unique and special. It affirms that every person has talent and ability. It knows that no two people are alike and so it encourages everyone to learn and grow.
Why Religious Wars Occurred As a Result of the Reformation
There was a lot to gain and a lot to lose. If a territory went for one religion, the other religion lost land and power. Church buildings and church lands could be given to new leaders. With so much wealth and power at stake, it was inevitable that conflict would develop.
Luther's Greatest Concern
Undoubtedly, it was salvation. A person's life is brief but heaven is an eternity. Thus, a person must ensure that salvation occurs. It is imperative that a person make certain that the soul is saved. According to Luther, a soul could only be saved through faith alone.
It is the life of the monk. It is taking vows of poverty, chastity and obedience. It is dedicating one's life to God and the religious life. It is valued in the Roman Catholic Church but it is not practiced by Protestants.
What Luther Really Wanted
To reform the Church was the goal. To make a better Church was what he sought. He did not plan on being excommunicated and forming his own church.
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