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52 terms

Human Anatomy and Physiology Ch 5 P1 Beck Book

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adipose tissue
collection of fat cells
amitosis
the direct method of cell division characterized by simple division of the nucleus without formation of chromosomes
anabolism
process of building up of larger molecules for smaller ones, requires energy,its a contsructive phase of cellular metabolism
anaphase
In cell division, or mitosis, chromatids detach and separate to become chromosomes again 4th part of the cell cycle
anatomy
the study of the structure of the bosy and the interrelationship of its parts
areolar tissue
loose connective tissue that binds the skin to the underlying tissues and fills the spaces between the muscles
atoms
all substances are made of subatomic particles that form these, are arranged in specific patterns and structures called molecules, molecules are arranged in such a wayas to produce compounds or matter
cardiac muscle tissue
tissues occurring in the heart, involuntary, directly stimulated by nerve impulses, pumps blood into the heart
catabolism
the breaking down of larger substances or molecules into smaller ones, this process releases energy that can be stored for other reactions such as muscle contraction
cell
basic functional units of all living matter
cell membrane
a thin covering of the outer surface of a cell, or cytoplasm, transports materials from outside and inside the cell, helps to control cell activity
cellular metabolism
all chemical reactions within a cell that transforms food for cell growth and operation
centrosome
structure near the nucleus with 2 rod shaped centrioles, divides in 2 parts during mitosis, helps distribute chromosomes
columnar
cells formed together that are much taller than they are wide, like columns
cuboidal
The cubic shape of a type of epithelial cell.
cytoplasm
all of the substance within a cell wall other than the nucleus
cytoplasmic organelles
specialized cellular compartments, each performing its own job to maintain the life of the cell.
differentiation
the process during early developmental stages, where the repeated division of the ovum results in many specialized cells that differ from one another in composition and function
fibrocartilage
found between the vertebrae and in the pubic symphasis, where strong support and limited range of motion are required
fibrous connective tissues
composed of collagen and elastin fibers that are closely arranged to form tendons and ligaments
enzymes
protein substances that act as organic catalysts for chemical reactions in metabolism while remaining unchanged themselves
epithileal tissues
protective layer that functions in the process of absorption, secretion, excretion, and protection
fascia
fibrous connective tissue that forms a network throughout the body, surrounding every structure to support, seperate and give shape to the body
histology
the study of cells, and micro scopic organisms
hyaline cartilage
type of cartilage that contains little fibrous tissues made up of cells, clear or translucent , found in nose, trachea, and on the end of bones and in moveable joints
interphase
normal state of the cell,during which most of the cellular work and growth are done, chromosomes remain in thin threads, later during mitosis become rod-like
ligaments
bands of fibrous tissues that connect bone to bone
metaphase
stage in cell division, or mitosis, when chromosomes arrange themselves in a plane called equitorial plane, nuclear membrane and nucleolos are absent
mitosis
process of cell division in which a cell divides into 2 cells identical to the parent cell
molecules
groups of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
mucous membranes
line the digestive and upper respitory tract to produce mucous, a thick sticky substance that acts as a protectiant and lubricant
nerve tissues
composed of nuerons, sensitive to specifc types of stimuli, able to transmit impulses , act as channels of messages to and from the brain
neurons
the structural unit of the nervous system
organ system
A group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions.
organs
groups of tissues that work together to perform a specific function or related functions or jobs
perichondrium
the membrane covering cartilage
periosteum
the fibrous membrane that functions to protect the bone and serves as an attachment of tendons and ligaments
physiology
The study of the functions of body structures
prophase
the first stage of mitosis or meiosis in eukaryotic cell division, during which the nuclear envelope breaks down and strands of chromatin form into chromosomes, stage during mitosis where chromosomes which are composed of DNA which house the genes, become larger and more defined,
protoplasm
colorless jelly like substance in cells in which food elements such as protein, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts and water are present
reticular tissue
the fine fibers that form together in the liver and lymphoid organs
serous membranes
line the body cavities and sometimes the outermost parts of the organs, produce a serous fluid, a watery substance that also act as a lubricant
skeletal muscle
are attached to bone by tendons, responsible for moving limbs, facial expression, speaking and other voluntary movements
smooth muscle
lacks striations and can not be stimulated to contract by conscious effort, work subconsciously, work involuntarily
squamous
The flat, tile-like shape of a type of epithelial cell.
striated muscles
-Consists of many muscle fibers
-Muscle fibers consist of myofibrils
-Myofibrils give the striated look, striped looking
superficial fascia
the connecting layer between the skin and those structures underlying the skin
synovial membrane
a connective tissue membrane lining cavities and capsules in and around joints
telophase
the final stage of meiosis or mitosis, in which the separated chromosomes reach the opposite poles of the dividing cell and the nuclei of the daughter cells form around the two sets of chromosomes
tendons
bands that attach muscles to bones
tissues
groups of similar cells that perform a specific function in an organism
voluntary muscles
muscles that can be consciously controlled (skeletal muscle)