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UO Social Psychology Final
Chapters 6, 8, 10, 11, 13
Terms in this set (67)
A state of mental discomfort arising from a discrepancy between two or more of a person's beliefs or between a person's beliefs and overt behavior.
The tendency to overestimate the intensity and duration of our emotional reactions to future negative events
Dissonance aroused after making a decision, typically reduced by enhancing the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and devaluating the rejected alternatives.
an unscrupulous strategy whereby a salesperson induces a customer to agree to purchase a product at a low cost, subsequently claims it was an error, and then raises the price; frequently, the customer will agree to make the purchase at the inflated price.
Justification of Effort
The tendency for individuals to increase their liking for something they have worked hard to attain
A reason or an explanation for dissonant personal behavior that resides outside the individual (e.g., in order to receive a large reward or avoid a severe punishment).
The reduction of dissonance by changing something about oneself (e.g., one's attitude or behavior)
Stating an opinion or attitude that runs counter to one's private belief or attitude
the arousal of dissonance by having individuals make statements that run counter to their behaviors and then reminding them of the inconsistency between what they advocated and their behavior. The purpose is to lead individuals to more responsible behavior
the dissonance aroused when individuals lack sufficient external justification for having resisted a desired activity or object, usually resulting in individuals' devaluing the forbidden activity or object
a long-lasting form of attitude change that results from attempts at self-justification (makes it internal instead of an external cause)-- may result from mild threat and small reward, NOT from severe threat or large reward.
A change in one's behavior due to the real or imagined influence of other people.
Informational Social Influence
The influence of other people that leads us to conform because we see them as a source of information to guide our behavior; we conform because we believe that others' interpretation of an ambiguous situation is more correct than ours and will help us choose an appropriate course of action.
Conforming to other people's behavior out of a genuine belief that what they are doing or saying is right
Conforming to other people's behavior publicly without necessarily believing in what the other people are doing or saying.
The rapid spread of emotions or behaviors through a crowd.
Mass Psychogenic Illness
the occurrence, in a group of people, of similar physical symptoms with no known physical cause
The implicit or explicit rules a group has for the acceptable behaviors, values, and beliefs of its members. Expected behaviors in a society.
Normative Social Influence
The influence of other people that leads us to conform in order to be liked and accepted by them; this type of conformity results in public compliance with the group's beliefs and behaviors but not necessarily private acceptance of those beliefs and behaviors
Social Impact Theory
The idea that conforming to social influence depends on the group's importance, its immediacy, and the number of people in the group
The tolerance a person earns, over time, by conforming to group norms; if enough idiosyncrasy credits are earned, the person can, on occasion, behave deviantly without retribution from the group
The case where a minority of group members influences the behavior or beliefs of the majority
People's perceptions of what behaviors are approved or disapproved of by others
People's perceptions of how people actually behave in given situations, regardless of whether the behavior is approved or disapproved of by others
The finding that the more we see and interact with people, the more likely they are to become our friends
Mere Exposure Effect
The finding that the more exposure we have to a stimulus, the more apt we are to like it
Social Exchange Theory
The idea that people's feelings about a relationship depend on their perceptions of the rewards and costs of the relationship, the kind of relationship they deserve, and their chances for having a better relationship with someone else
People's expectations about the level of rewards and punishments they are likely to receive in a particular relationship
Comparison Level for Alternatives
People's expectations about the level of rewards and punishments they would receive in an alternative relationship. Is an assessment if it's better or worse in a different relationship.
A theory of interpersonal relationships claiming that we experience relational satisfaction when there is an equal distribution of rewards and costs between the two persons of the relationship.
The intimacy and affection we feel when we care deeply for a person but do not experience passion or arousal in the person's presence
An intense longing we feel for a person, accompanied by physiological arousal; when our love is reciprocated, we feel great fulfillment and ecstasy, but when it is not, we feel sadness and despair
Evolutionary Approach to Love
A theory derived from evolutionary biology that holds that men and women are attracted to different characteristics in each other (men are attracted by women's appearance; women are attracted by men's resources) because this maximizes their chances of reproductive success
The expectations people develop about relationships with others, based on the relationship they had with their primary caregiver when they were infants
Secure Attachment Style
an attachment style characterized by trust, a lack of concern with being abandoned, and the view that one is worthy and well liked
Avoidant Attachment Style
An attachment style characterized by a suppression of attachment needs, because attempts to be intimate have been rebuffed; people with this style find it difficult to develop intimate relationships
Anxious/Ambivalent Attachment Style
An attachment style characterized by a concern that others will not reciprocate one's desire for intimacy, resulting in higher-than-average levels of anxiety.
A hostile or negative attitude toward a distinguishable group of people, based solely on their membership in that group
A generalization about a group of people in which certain traits are assigned to virtually all members of the group, regardless of actual variation among the members
A negative action taken against an individual as a result of his or her group membership
The perception that individuals in the out-group are more similar to each other (homogeneous) than they really are, as well as more similar than the members of the in-group are
Believing that a relationship exists when there is none, or of a stronger relationship than actually exists. If we believe a correlation exists, we will think of confirming instances. Ex: overweight women tend to be happier.
Ultimate Attribution Error
The tendency to make dispositional attributions about an entire group of people
The apprehension experienced by members of a group that their behavior might confirm a cultural stereotype.
Blaming the Victim
The tendency to blame individuals (make dispositional attributions) for their victimization, typically motivated by a desire to see the world as a fair place
The case whereby people (1) have an expectation about what another person is like, which (2) influences how they act toward that person, which (3) causes that person to behave in a way consistent with people's original expectations
Realistic Conflict Theory
The idea that limited resources lead to conflict between groups and result in increased prejudice and discrimination
The tendency for individuals, when frustrated or unhappy, to displace aggression onto groups that are disliked, visible, and relatively powerless
Racist attitudes that are held by the vast majority of people living in a society where stereotypes and discrimination are the norm
sexist attitudes that are held by the vast majority of people living in a society where stereotypes and discrimination are the norm
The tendency to go along with the group in order to fulfill the group's expectations and gain acceptance
Outwardly acting unprejudiced while inwardly maintaining prejudiced attitudes
The situation that exists when two or more groups need each other and must depend on each other to accomplish a goal that is important to each of them
A classroom setting designed to reduce prejudice and raise the self-esteem of children by placing them in small, desegregated groups and making each child dependent on the other children in the group to learn the course material and do well in the class
Any act performed with the goal of benefiting another person
Behaviors that benefit other people and for which there is no discernable extrinsic reward, recognition, or appreciation.
The idea that behaviors that help a genetic relative are favored by natural selection
Norm of Reciprocity
The expectation that helping others will increase the likelihood that they will help us in the future
The ability to put oneself in the shoes of another person and to experience events and emotions (e.g., joy and sadness) the way that person experiences them
The idea that when we feel empathy for a person, we will attempt to help that person purely for altruistic reasons, regardless of what we have to gain
the qualities that cause an individual to help others in a wide variety of situations
Any group or category to which people feel they belong.
Any group with which an individual does not identify
Urban Overload Hypothesis
the theory that people living in cities are constantly being bombarded with stimulation and that they keep to themselves to avoid being overwhelmed by it
The finding that the greater the number of bystanders who witness an emergency, the less likely any one of them is to help
Bystanders' assuming that nothing is wrong in an emergency because no one else looks concerned
Diffusion of Responsibility
The phenomenon whereby each bystander's sense of responsibility to help decreases as the number of witnesses increases
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