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Biology Chapter 13: Genetic Engineering
Terms in this set (52)
Allowing only those animals with desired characteristics to produce the next generation. (Lets us pick and choose the traits we want to pass on).
What is the purpose of selective breeding?
Humans use selective breeding, which takes advantage of naturally occurring genetic variation in desired traits on to the next generation of organisms.
Crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best of both organisms.
When you cross two parents and get the best of both.
Why may hybrids be hardier than their parents?
Hybrids may be hardier than their parents as you eliminate or reduce the likelihood of passing on some genetic disorders.
The continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics.
Why is inbreeding used?
To ensure that the characteristics that make each breed unique will be preserved.
What is the risk of inbreeding?
It can result in the passing on of recessive disorders. A cross between two individuals could bring together two recessive alleles for a genetic defect. Ex. blindness, joint deformities, etc.
Why might breeders try to induce mutations?
Breeders can increase the genetic variation in a population by inducing mutations, which are the ultimate source of genetic variability.
How can breeders increase the mutation rate in DNA?
By using radiation and chemicals.
What are two benefits to inducing mutations? Explain how.
1) Can develop useful bacteria strains. Their small size enables millions of organisms to be treated with radiation or chemicals at the same time, which increases the chances of producing a useful mutant. Ex. Oil-eating bacteria.
2) Can result in polyploidy in plants. Having extra sets of chromosomes allows plants to be larger and stronger than their diploid relatives.
Multiple numbers of chromosome sets.
How do scientists make changes to DNA?
Scientists use their knowledge of the structure of DNA and its chemical properties to study and change DNA molecules. Different techniques are used to extract DNA from cells, to cut DNA into smaller pieces, to identify the sequence of bases in a DNA molecule, and to make unlimited copies of DNA.
Making changes in the DNA code of a living organism.
How do biologists get DNA out of a cell?
The cells are opened and the DNA is separated from the other cell parts.
Cut DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides.
Where restriction enzymes cut DNA. They may stick to complementary base sequences by means of hydrogen bonds.
Used to separate and analyze DNA fragments.
How can gel electrophoresis be used?
Gel electrophoresis can be used to compare the genomes of different organisms, and to locate and identify one particular gene.
DNA that does not code for proteins.
Different lengths of DNA.
Variable Number Tandem Repeats = sequences that may be repeated in a row. Ex. GTGTGTGTG
How are VNTR useful?
They can determine how rare or unique a person's DNA can be.
What is the enzyme that copies DNA?
What are the five steps in DNA Identification?
1) Isolate the DNA sample.
2) Cut the DNA into smaller pieces with known VNTR areas.
3) Sort the DNA by size.
4) Compare the size fragments in the unknown sample to those in the known sample.
5) Confirm person's identity.
What does knowing the sequence of an organism's DNA allow researchers to do?
Knowing the sequence of an organism's DNA allows researchers to study specific genes.
Combining DNA from two different individuals.
What are the six steps to recombinant DNA?
1) Remove DNA plasmid from bacterium.
2) Open the ring using restriction enzyme to cut DNA, leaving "sticky ends."
3) Sticky ends hold donor DNA in place until DNA ligase enzyme splices it to plasmid.
4) "Recombinant" DNA is reinserted into a bacterium.
5) Bacterium reproduces, making copies of the donor genes.
6) Once the bacteria have formed a colony containing the desired DNA, it is identified using a probe (RNA or single strand DNA that has a radioactive element or fluorescent dye).
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
Making copies of a particular gene.
What are the three kinds of information that can be found by knowing the sequence of a DNA molecule?
1) Allows researchers to study specific genes
2) To compare genes with other genes of different organisms
3) To discover the functions of different genes and gene combinations
What happens during cell transformation?
During transformation, a cell takes in DNA from outside the cell. This external DNA becomes a component of the cell's DNA.
A small, circular DNA molecule found in bacterium.
Why are plasmids useful for DNA transfer?
It has a DNA sequence that helps promote plasmid replication, meaning that if the plasmid containing foreign DNA gets back inside the bacterium, it will be replicated. They also have a genetic marker, making it possible for researchers to mix recombinant plasmids with a culture of bacteria, add DNA to transform one cell in a million, and still be able to "find" that cell.
A gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry the plasmid and the foreign DNA.
How can you tell if a transformation experiment has been successful?
If transformation is successful, the recombinant DNA is integrated into one of the chromosomes of the cell.
Contain genes from other species
How do we use DNA technology?
-Forensics = identification of criminals
-Making insulin for diabetics
-Human growth hormone
-Clotting factors for hemophiliacs
How much of the human genome codes for proteins?
2% of the human genome codes for proteins. (Other 98% called noncoding DNA)
How many genes are in the human genome?
True or False: One gene can code for only one type of protein.
False: One gene can code for different kinds of proteins.
A non-human species that is studies to understand a particular biological phenomena.
The study of the human genome
The study of science combining biology with computer and information technology
Study of an organism's proteins
Why are bioinformatics and proteomics important?
Proteomics and Bioinformatics help medical researchers to identify markers for diagnosing diseases and targets for therapeutic drugs.
Removing a faulty gene and replacing it with a healthy, normal one.
A member of a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell.
Cloning by nuclear transfer steps
1) Remove egg from donor organism
2) Remove nucleus from donor cell
3) Insert DNA from desired organism and insert into "empty" nucleus of donor egg
4) Insert egg into surrogate mother
Substance that contains all or part of a pathogen
How do vaccines work?
The immune system recognizes the surface protein on the pathogen and creates antibodies.
Made by using one or more genes from a pathogen
How could genetic engineering be useful to plants?
1) nutrients added to crops
2) pest/disease resistance
3) increase yield of crops to increase food supply
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