Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
8th Grade NC Science EOG
Terms in this set (164)
Levels of ecology (smallest to largest)
organism, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere
An individual living thing
A group of organisms of the same species living in the same area
All the different populations that live together in an area
A community combined with abiotic factors
Everything on Earth
Things that limit a population no matter the size
Examples of density-independence
Natural disasters, age, disease
Things that limit a large population
Examples of density-dependence
Food, water, shelters
Types of organism Interactions
Competition, predation, symbiosis
When organisms fight/compete over resources, density dependent
When one organism hunts and kills another.
1. If the amount of predators increases...
2. If the amount of predators decreases...
1. The amount of prey decreases
2. The amount of prey increases
Two organisms living together.
Types of symbiotic relationships
Mutualism, commensalism, parasitism
when both organisms benefit
Examples of mutualism
Plant and pollinator, cleaning birds and hippos
When one organism benefits and the other is unaffected
Examples of commensalism
Human eyelash and eyelash mites
When one organism benefits (parasite) and the other is harmed
Examples of parasitism
Tapeworm and human intestine, tick on a dog
An organism's role in an ecosystem
Largest number of organisms that can be supported to live in an ecosystem
An organism that makes its own food
An organism that cannot make its own food, consumes other organisms for energy
Trophic levels (smallest to largest)
Primary producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers
How much energy is passed from one trophic level to the next
Ultimate source of energy
Light energy is changed to chemical energy by...
Energy gets lost as...
Heat and metabolism
Energy _____ through ecosystems
Nutrients _____ through ecosystems
Properties of hydrology
Polarity, adhesion, cohesion, surface tension, specific heat
An uneven charge
When water sticks to other things
Water sticks to itself
Thin layer on water's surface that small organisms can walk on
How fast/slow things heat. Think of it as how much water resists to heat
High specific heat means...
It heats slowly, water
Low specific heat means...
It heats fast
Less dense as a solid than a liquid
Major steps of the water cycle
Evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, infiltration
Water is able to pass through
A layer where groundwater is held, where well water comes from
Amount of oxygen in water, high is good
How clear water is, low is good
how acidic/basic a substance is, 0-14 (acidic to basic), 7 is neutral/good
Nitrates and phosphates
Nutrients/waste, low is good
Heat of water, shouldn't vary outside normal
Living things showing if water is polluted, high is good
The process that causes a dead zone
Process of eutrophication
Runoff carries nitrates into water, algae bloom, high bacteria, low oxygen, dead zone forms
Area of land drained by a river
What is our river basin?
Environmental Protection Agency, makes sure water is potable
Steps to treating drinking water
Coagulation, sedimentation, filtering, disinfectant
Add chemical to make dirt clump
Dirt settles to the bottom
Put water through filter
Most of the earth's water is from...
In oceans where sunlight is visible
Dark zone of oceans, no sunlight
How do aphotic zones get energy through...
Open ocean/photic zones get energy through...
Where nutrients come from in aphasic zones (chemosynthesis)
Salt and freshwater meet (brackish water)
Why are estuaries important
Filter pollutants, nurse baby fish, buffer zone/reduce flood
Ocean currents are driven by...
Wind, temperature, density
When cold, nutrient rich waters brought to the surface, more fish
Oxygen is important for
Carbon dioxide is important for
Drop-off into open ocean
Keystone species, biodiversity, coral bleaching (when coral goes bad and loses color)
70% of Earth's oxygen comes from the...
Keystone species, forms a canopy, gas bladders
Costal plants that live in saltwater, brush, shrub, or tree, slows erosion
Comparing the age of fossils/rocks to one another, they say which is older or younger
The age of a rock in years (more exact, but still approximated)
To determine relative dating age, use...
Law of superposition, index fossils, law of crosscutting
Law of superposition
Oldest rocks are on the bottom, youngest at the top
Faults, igneous intrusion, erosion
A crack that goes through rock layers
Magma from the mantle rises through rock layers
Law of Crosscutting
If an unconformity cuts through rocks, it is younger than the layer it cuts through
A fossil that lived for a short time in a widespread area, trilobite
Determine the absolute age through...
The time it takes for half of the parent atom (radioactive) takes to turn into a daughter atom (stable)
1. One half life goes by
2. Another half life goes by
1. 50% of the rock
2. 25% of the rock
Example of radiometric dating
If Uranium-238 turns into Potassium-40 after 1 billion years, 1 billion is one half life.
Theory of Plate Tectonics
Tectonic plates are driven by convection currents in the mantle
Who formed the theory of plate tectonics
Theory of continental drift
Theory that plates are constantly moving
Plates collide, forms mountains or islands
Plates separate, form volcanos or canyons
Plates slide past each other, make earthquakes
Geologic time scale (smallest to largest)
Epoch, period, era, eon
What is evolution
The changing of species over generations
Who formed the theory of evolution
VCST (factors of
Variation, Competition, Selection, Time
Evidence of evolution
Structures, comparative embryology, comparative biochemistry, artificial/natural selection
Structure that is no longer needed (human tailbone)
Structure that species share through common ancestry (human hand and cat paw)
Structures that are similar, but do not share a common ancestor (butterfly and bat wings)
Compare embryos to show common ancestor
DNA is similar in species that share a common ancestor
When humans breed organisms for desirable traits
If organisms are not fit to the environment, they die off. If they are fit, they reproduce to make fit babies.
When bacteria evolves to be able to survive through the use of antibiotics
Takes in oxygen, produces CO2, opposite of photosynthesis
Classification Hierarchy (large to small)
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Plants, Animals, Protists, Fungi, Archaebacteria (live in extreme environments), Eubacteria (can be helpful and harmful)
Smallest unit of matter
Positive charge in an atom (nucleus)
Neutral charge in an atom (nucleus)
Negative charge in an atom (orbit around nucleus)
A positive or negative charged atom, a positive ion looses electrons. (symbol)(+ or -)(number)
Subtract protons from atomic mass. (element)-(number)
Periodic table groups
Alkali, Alkaline, Transition, Boron, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Noble Gas, Rare Earth
Each group has a different number of
You can find the reactivity by
How close the valence is to 0 or 8 (8 is stable)
Left of staircase
Properties of metals and non-metals, on staircase
Right of staircase
Parts of a chemical equation
Reactants and products
Difference of coefficients and subscripts
Multiply coefficients by subscripts
24 Carbon, 22 Hydrogen, 11 Oxygen
Law of Conservation of Mass
Atoms cannot be created or destroyed
If the number of atoms on both sides are equal, it is
How do you balance a chemical equation
Add coefficients to make both sides equal
Two or more types of atoms bonded together
Two or more substances combined
A mixture that can be separated
A mixture that cannot be separated, is the same throughout
Bacteria (pro/eukaryote, how is it spread, how is it treated)
Prokaryote, fission, air water direct contact, drugs
Virus (pro/eukaryote, how is it spread, how is it treated)
Neither (not living), attach to a host cell and replicate, sneeze cough touch, vaccination
Parasite (pro/eukaryote, how is it spread, how is it treated)
Eukaryote, both sexual and asexual, insect bites water poor sanitary, immune system and antibiotics
Fungus (pro/eukaryote, how is it spread, how is it treated)
Depends on species, food air touching, medication
If liquid is heated, the molecules...
If liquid is cooled, the molecules...
Why do atoms bond?
To share valence electrons to become stable
Color, odor, malleability, and ductility are examples of what?
Flammability and reaction with gasses are examples of what?
signs of a chemical change
Formation of gas, formation of precipitate, color change, a new substance forms
Photosynthesis takes place in the...
Cell respiration takes place in the...
When two liquids mix to make a solid
What is ATP
Energy produced by cell respiration
An ion is...
When an atom gains of looses electrons, giving it a charge.
If an ion has a positive charge, it has...
Lost electrons (and vice-versa with negative charges)
If a carbon ion is C(+2), how many protons and electrons does it have (carbons atomic number is 6)
6 protons, 4 electrons
If a chemical equation has an equal amount of atoms on both sides, it is...
What is an isotope
When an atom gains or looses neutrons
1. If carbon has 12 neutrons, what is it's isotope?
2. If carbon gains 3 neutrons, what is it's isotope?
Properties of viruses (list if they are pro/eukaryote, how they reproduce, how to defend against them)
Neither (non living), replicate with a host cell, vaccines and anti-viral medicine
Properties of bacteria (list if they are pro/eukaryote, how they reproduce, how to defend against them)
Prokaryotic, binary fission, antibiotics (remember antibiotic resistance, though)
A disease that affects a population in one certain area
A disease that effects the whole world
Something used to carry a disease, usually an insect or animal)
Sets with similar terms
8th Grade Science EOG Vocab
Bio 100 chapter 1-2 test
AP Bio unit 1
Biology Semester 1 Final Exam
Sets found in the same folder
EOG Review 8th Grade Science NC
Math 8 Formulas & Review for the EOG
EOG Vocabulary Review Words
ELA EOG Terms Glossary #1-20
Other sets by this creator
Earth Science Final
Recommended textbook solutions
Chemistry: Matter and Change
Buthelezi, Dingrando, Hainen, Wistrom
Life on an Ocean Planet
Python for Everyone
Cay S. Horstmann, Rance D. Necaise
Miller and Levine Biology
Joseph S. Levine, Kenneth R. Miller
Other Quizlet sets
Тест по 1-2-3
Human Resource Management
Trail Guid to The Body Muscle Group II FOREARM AND…
The long-term sustainability of life on Earth has depended on
What two subatomic particles does the nucleus contain ?
True or False// Scientists study areas of intense volcanic and geothermal activity to gain knowledge about the Earth's interior.
The quality decline in fruits and vegetables after harvest is called?