FSA Civics Final Review-May 15th
Terms in this set (36)
-He was an English Enlightenment philosopher. He believed people are born with NATURAL RIGHTS (life, liberty, and property) that a government can't take away from you unless you break the law. If the government does not protect your natural rights, the people have to right overthrow their government
Locke-Life, Liberty, and Property
Baron de Montesquieu
He believed governments should have separation of powers (legislative, executive and judicia)
Locke said the moment you are born, you enter a contract with your government leaders. They have to protect your natural rights and you have to
follow the law.
Consent of the Governed
People are the source of any and all governmental power
Enlightenment Era (Time Period)
-Occurred from 1715-1789. People during this time period started to challenge ideas from their leaders and to base their ideas on facts and thoughts instead of just being told what to believe.
Separation of Powers
the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government
The leaders who created the Declaration of Independence, The Constitution, and the Bill of Rights. They were influenced by Locke and Montesquieu
God's or nature's law that defines right from wrong and is higher than laws that humans create
a government document that limited the power of the King of England for the first time in history. It provided rights to the nobles (the rich) while it took power away from the King. M.C. made King John follow the rule of law. The nobles also received a trial by jury-they could now be judged by other adults in court and not by the King!
a monarchy that is limited by laws and a constitution
a government that has been limited in power by a constitution, or written agreement
this idea came from the Magna Carta. It means that every citizen should have the right to have their day in court if they feel their rights have been violated. They need to know what they are being charged with and they should receive a fair trial, judge and jury as well.
RULE OF LAW!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
No one is above the law-including all kings and presidents
Mayflower Compact (year of 1620)
a group of pilgrims came over from England and created a self-government to watch over each other
English Bill of Rights-1689
protected the rights of English citizens, it gave more power to Parliament and and became the basis for our own Bill of Rights.
Parliament is the political government of England. It's leader is the Prime Minister (they are like a President). The Prime Minister gets picked from Parliament who is in control.
Comes from England's Parliament
They have a monarch (a Queen who has no power) but they are led by the Parliament and the monarch has to listen to them.
He was a colonial journalist who wrote the pamphlet called "Common Sense" in 1776. It inspired the colonists to break away from England with a list of reasons why he felt we should not be ruled England.
This was the name of the pamphlet that Thomas Paine wrote that fired up Thomas Jefferson and others to want to break away from England after they read it in 1776.
There were a total of 13 American colonies in what we call the U.S. They were under the rule of England/Great Britain
French and Indian War 1756-1763
This was a war between France and England from 1756-1763 in the American colonies. England won the war and the King wanted the colonists to pay for it.
Proclamation of 1763
The King of England refused to allow the colonists to move past the Appalachian Mountain because it would cost too much to protect them after he paid for the F&I war. This made them mad!
Sugar Act of 1764
To help pay for the cost of the French and Indian War, the King and Parliament made an Act (law) that required the colonists to pay for it so they put a tax on all sugar goods.
Quartering Soldiers Act of 1765
Since the British troops did not really have any military bases in the colonies, the King and Parliament required the colonists to allow British soldiers into their homes and provide them food even without their permission.
Stamp Act 1765
Placed a tax on almost all printed materials in the colonies
Townshend Acts of 1767
These Acts were 5 new taxes passed by Parliament and were passed by Parliament.
Are also known as laws-they are passed by Parliament as well as state and federal law makers
English Policies/laws (how they treating us) led to Colonist Boycotts
English policies/laws made the colonists mad so they started to boycotting British goods as a way to protest. This hurt the British government economy and made Parliament really upset.
An incident in which British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting the. 5 colonists were killed and Paul Revere drew a famous painting showing the killing.
Boston Tea Party-1773
British ships carrying tea sailed into Boston Harbor and refused to leave until the colonials took their tea. Boston was boycotting the tea in protest of the Tea Act and would not let the ships bring the tea ashore. Finally, on the night of December 16, 1773, colonials disguised as Indians boarded the ships and threw the tea overboard. They did so because they were afraid that Governor Hutchinson would secretly unload the tea because he owned a share in the cargo.
English Policies Led to Colonist Boycott
English policies (laws) made the colonists mad so they started to boycott British goods as a way to protest.
No TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION
This is one of the main reasons the colonists were mad at Parliament and the King because they did not have anyone to represent them in the colonies and they could not petition the government.
The colonists then tried to address their grievances (problems against the King and Parliament) but both of them continued to ignore the American colonists.
Thomas Paine's Common Sense (1776)
T.Paine wrote a pamphlet that inspired Thomas Jefferson and the American colonists to write the Declaration of Independence
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