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questions for test 3 - old tests
Terms in this set (44)
The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to _____________.
collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage
based on the histology of each nephron tubule portion, which section would be most severely inhibited if simple squamous epithelium were damaged?
the thing segment of the loop of henle
in addition to storage and mechanical breakdown of food, the stomach:
produces intrinsic factor needed for vitamin B12 absorption in the intestines
what might be a probable explanation for an intense craving for heavily salted food?
addisons disease where insufficient aldosterone is available to reabsorb NaCl
carbohydrate digestion begins in the _______, whereas protein digestion begins in the ________
The function of angiotensin II is to ________.
constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure
the hormone called secretin functions to:
stimulate the release of pancreatic juice
how would eating a high protein diet affect filtration?
due to higher colloid osmotic pressure in the glomerular blood, the net filtration pressure would be lower and less filtrate would form
pepsinogen is produced by ______ and is activated by _____, which is secreted by ________
chief cells; HCl; parietal cells
the descending limb of the loop of henle:
contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla
digestive processes in the small intestine include:
release of CCK, an intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction with subsequent bile
cirrhosis of the liver would most severely impact the digestion of _____.
tubular reabsorption in the nephron ______.
by active mechanisms usually involves movement against an electrical and/or chemical gradient
which of the following would reduce the glomerular filtration rate?
vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole
lipids are transported to the surface of the intestinal absorptive cells by _____.
the kidneys are stimulated to produce renin ______.
by a decrease in the blood pressure
there are three phases of gastric secretion. The cephalic phase occurs _____.
before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought
total saturation of transport proteins for a given solute in the renal tubular cells would result in ______.
appearance of that solute in the urine
the maintenance of the proper pH of the body fluids may be the result of ______.
the control of respiratory ventilation
which of the following is not a function of the live?
-synthesis of plasma proteins
-secretion of digestive enzymes
secretion of digestive enzymes
if excessive amounts of water are taken into the body:
the release of ADH decreases
select the correct statement about renal mechanisms of acid-base balance
kidney tubule cells are able to synthesize bicarbonate ion
blood analysis indicates a low pH, and the patient is breathing rapidly. Given your knowledge of acid-base balance, what is most likely?
the urine is most likely to be hypotonic when the _____.
body's water volume is high
a nonessential amino acid is one that:
can be made within the body
which of the following is not caused by hypernatremia?
a reduction in plasma volume
cholesterol, though it is not an energy molecule, has importance in the body because it ______.
is a stabilizing component of the plasma membranes and is the parent molecule of steroid hormones
the factors opposing filtrate formation at the glomerulus is:
the colloid osmotic pressure of the blood and capsular hydrostatic pressure
which of the following statements is true regarding fluid shifts?
electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes and therefore have the greatest ability to cause fluid shifts
when proteins undergo deamination, the waste substance found in the urine is mostly ______.
glucose and amino acids are primarily reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by the _____.
proximal convoluted tubule
several digestive enzymes are secreted as inactive zymogens because ______.
they act only in the GI lumen and do not digest intracellular proteins
which of the following is an essential role played by large intestine bacteria?
synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins
what would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal?
net filtration would decrease
what is the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
help regulate blood pressure and the rate filtration in the glomerulus
which of the following does not depend on the presence of electrolytes?
amount of body fat
in a healthy kidney, very little _____ is filtered by the glomerulus
which of the following is true regarding body fluids?
older adults tend to have a lower percentage of body water die to a decline in muscle mass and higher body fat percentage
dietary fats are important because they ______
help the body absorb fat-soluble vitamins
which of the following is true regarding cholesterol
HDL's are composed primarily of proteins and are called "good" choesterol
which of the following describes the countercurrent mechanism?
H2O moves out of the descending limb; sodium moves out the ascending limb
the enzyme ____ is specific for proteins and is produced by the _____
excretion of dilute urine requires _______
impermeability of the collecting tubule to water
a patient is breathing slowly and blood pH analysis indicated an abnormally high value. What is the likely diagnosis?
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