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Cardiovascular / Circulatory System
Terms in this set (85)
(1) Functions of blood
of gases, nutrients and waste products.
For example: oxygen.
of processed molecules.
For example: precursor of vitamin D from skin to liver then kidneys.
of regulatory molecules.
For example: hormones.
of PH and osmosis.
(normal PH of most body tissues between 7.35 and 7.45)
of body temperature.
For example: warm blood shunted to the interior of the body.
against foreign substances.
For example: antibodies
(2) Functions of plasma proteins
Viscosity, osmotic pressure, buffer, transports fatty acids, free bilirubin, thyroid hormones.
transports lipids, carbohydrates, hormones,, ions, antibodies, and complement Fibrinogen.
(3) Where are blood cells formed?
Red blood cells, most white blood cells, and platelets are produced in the bone marrow, the soft fatty tissue inside bone cavities.
(3) What is the name of the process in which blood cells are formed?
Hematopoiesis or Hemopoiesis
(4) What cells give rise to red blood cells?
Myeloid stem cells
give rise to red blood cells, platelets, and some types of white blood cells,
(5) Properties of red blood cells.
-Hemoglobin- colors the cell red.
-Found in higher concentration in male plasma.
-2/3 Lipids, ATP, carbonic anhydrase.
(6) What is the function of the heme group in red blood cells?
Gives myoglobin and hemoglobin the ability to bind oxygen because of the presence of iron atom. It also contributes to the red color found in muscles and blood.
(7) What stimulates red blood cell production?
Produced by kidneys in response to low blood Oxygen (O2) levels.
(7) Production of red blood cells: Process
Stem cells > Proerythroblasts > early erythroblasts > intermediate erythroblasts ?late erythroblasts > reticulocytes.
(8) What is erythropoietin?
a hormone secreted by the kidneys that increases the rate of production of red blood cells in response to falling levels of oxygen in the tissues.
(9) The process for the degradation of hemoglobin.
when old red blood cells rupture the released hemoglobin is ingested by macrophages.
the globin chains of hemoglobin are broken down to individual amino acids that are metabolized or used to build
iron is released from the heme of hemoglobin the remaining structure is converted to Billy Verdun which is then converted into bilirubin.
iron is transported by transferrin in the blood to various tissues for storage or to read bone marrow for making new
three Bilirubin is transported by albumin in the blood to the liver.
liver cells make conjugated bilirubin which is excreted as part of the bile into the small intestine.
intestinal bacteria convert bilirubin into bilirubin derivatives which contribute to the color of feces.
some of the bilirubin derivatives are absorbed into the blood and excreted from the kidneys in the urine.
(10) The Function of white blood cells.
- Also called leukocytes, are an important part of the immune system. These cells help fight infections by attacking bacteria, viruses, and germs that invade the body.
- Protect the body against microorganisms and remove dead cells and debris.
(Maybe breakdown each white blood cell type.)
(11) The function of (WBC) Granulocyte -
-First respondents to microbial infection.
- Increases in bacterial infections
-Releases antimicrobial chemicals
(11) The function of (WBC) Granulocyte -
-Fluctuates greatly from day to night, seasonally, and with phase of menstrual cycle.
-Increases in parasitic infections, allergies, collagen diseases, and diseases of the spleen and CNS (central nervous system), Allergic reactions (inflammatory responses)
(11) The function of (WBC) Granulocyte -
-Secrete histamine (a vasodialtor), which increases blood flow to a tissue.
-Secrete heparin (an anticoagulant), which promotes mobility of other WBCs by preventing clotting.
(13) What are the properties of eosinophils?
- Harder to find in blood film because they are only 2% - 4% of the WBC total. 10-14 in diameter, typically numbering about 170 cells.
- The eosinophil nucleus usually has two large lobes connected by a thin strand, and the cytoplasm has an abundance of coarse pink to orange colored specific granules in cytoplasm.
(14) What type of white blood cells are B cells and T cells classified as?
- Agranulocytes -
- Nucleus round, ovoid, or slightly dimpled on one side, of uniform or mottled dark violet color.
-In small lymphocytes, nucleus fills nearly all of the cell and leaves only a scanty rim of clear, light blue cytoplasm.
-In larger lymphocytes, cytoplasm is more abundant; large lymphocytes may be hard to differentiate from monocytes.
- Several function classes usually indistinguishable by light microscopy.
-Destroy cancer cells, cells infected with viruses, and foreign cells.
-Present antigens to activate other cells of immune system.
-Coordinate actions of other immune cells
-Serve in immune memory
-Increases in diverse infections and immune responses.
(15) The functions of Monocytes.
-Differentiate into macrophages (large phagocytic cells of the tissues)
-Phagocytize pathogens, dead neutrophils, and debris of dead cells.
-Present antigens to activate other cells of immune system.
Monocytes have several functions to help you ward off diseases and infections. 'M.'
Monocytes have the ability to change into another cell form called macrophages before facing the germs. They can actually consume, or munch, on harmful bacteria, fungi and viruses. Then, enzymes in the monocyte's body kill and break down the germs into pieces.
Monocytes help other white blood cells identify the type of germs that have invaded the body. After consuming the germs, the monocytes take parts of those germs, called antigens, and mount them outside their body like flags. Other white blood cells see the antigens and make antibodies designed to kill those specific types of germs.
Monocytes help mend damaged tissue by stopping the inflammation process. They remove dead cells from the sites of infection, which repairs wounds. They have also shown to influence the formation of some organs, like the heart and brain, by helping the components that hold tissues together.
(16) What are platelets?
- Cell fragments pinched off from megakaryoctytes in red bone marrow.
-Surface glycoproteins and proteins allow adhesion to other molecules.
-Important in preventing blood loss.
*Promoting formation and contraction of clots.
(17) What are the last steps of clotting after Prothrombin is converted to Thrombin?
(1) Conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin.
(2)Proteins found in plasma.
(3)circulate in inactive state until tissues are injured.
(4)Damaged tissues and platelets produce chemicals that behind activation of the factors.
Results in Blood clot
(1) Prothrombin is converted to thrombin by prothrombinase.
(2) Fibrinogen is converted to fibrin (the clot) by thrombin.
(3) Thrombin activates factor Xiii (13) which stabilizes the fabrin clot.
(18) What compounds are anticoagulants?
: Produced by liver, slowly inactivates thrombin.
: Produced by basophils and endothelial cells. Increases effectiveness of antithrombin.
: Prostaglandin derivative from endothelial cells. Causes vasodilation and inhibits release of coagulating factors from platelets.
(19) What is the process of clot dissolution (fibrinolysis)?
Achived by a small cascade of reactions with a postive feedback componet. In addition to promoting clotting, factor Xii (12) catalyzes the formation of plasma enzyme call Kallikrein.
In turn, Kallikrein coverts the inactive protein plasminogen into plasmin, a fibrin-dissovling enzyme that breaks up the clot.
Thrombin also activates plasmin, and plasmin indirectly promotes the formation of more kallikrein, thus completing a positive feedback loop.
(20) What are the ABO blood types?
- What antigens and antibodies are present?
-Antibodies: Anti-A , Anti-B
(21) How can the Rh factor be a problem in pregnant women and how can the problem be avoided?
When an Rh- woman is pregnant with an Rh+ fetus, she is exposed to D(rh) antigens, especially during childbirth (do to the tearing of the placenta).
Following that pregnancy, her immune system produceds anti-D antibodies.
If she later becomes pregnant with another Rh+ fetus, her anti-D antibodies can cross the placenta and agglutinate the blood of that fetus, causing taht child to be born with HDN (Hemolytic disease of the newborn)
This problem can be avoided by
being given and Rh immune globulin such as RhoGAM and Gamulin Rh.
-The immune globulin binds fetal RBC antigens so they cannot stimulate her immune system to produce anti-D.
-It is now common to give immune globulin at 28-32 weeks of gestation and at birth in any pregnancy in which the mother is Rh-.
(22) What does the hematocrit measurement mean?
- To check the percent of blood that is RBCs. (Red blood cells)
-the proportion, by volume, of the blood that consists of red blood cells.
(23) What is an elevated neutrophil count a sign of?
- A bacterial infection.
(24) What are the properties of the pericardium?
- Fibrous pericardium: tough fibrous outer layer. Prevents over distention; acts as an anchor.
lines the fibrous outer layer.)
- Serous pericardium: thin, transparent, inner layer. Simple squamous epithelium
aka: epicardium: covers heart surface.)
-Parietal and Visceral are continuous and have a pericardial cavity between them filled with pericardial fluid.
(25) Properties of right coronary artery?
- Exits aorta just superior to point where aorta exits heart; lies in coronary sulcus. Smaller than left. Extends to posterior aspect of heart.
Right marginal artery
to lateral wall of right ventricle.
Posterior inter-ventricular artery
lies in posterior interventricular sulcus, supplies posterior and inferior aspects of heart.
(25) Properties of left coronary artery?
- Exits aorta near right coronary. Branches to...
Anterior interventricular artery
(AKA: left anterior descending artery) in anterior interventricular sulcus.
Left marginal artery
supplies lateral wall of left ventricle.
extends to posterior aspect.
(25) What does the right coronary artery do?
- Supplies the right atrium and sinoatrial node (Pacemaker).
Has two branches of it's own
-Right marginal branch: Supplies the lateral aspect of the right atrium and ventricle.
-Posterior interventricular branch: supplies the posterior walls of both ventricles, as well as the posterior portion of the interventricular septum.
(25) What does the left coronary artery do?
-Anterior interventricular branch: AKA: LAD or Left anterior descending branch. Supplies blood to both ventricles and the anterior two-thirds of the interventricular septum.
-Circumflex branch gives off a left marginal branch which supplies blood to the left atrium and posterior wall of the left ventricle.
-Occlusion of this artery is often called the widow-maker infarction due to a high death risk.
(26) Where does blood return to the heart?
The heart consists of four chambers in which blood flows. Blood enters the right atrium and passes through the right ventricle. The right ventricle pumps the blood to the lungs where it becomes oxygenated. The oxygenated blood is brought back to the heart by the pulmonary veins which enter the left atrium. From the left atrium blood flows into the left ventricle. The left ventricle pumps the blood to the aorta which will distribute the oxygenated blood to all parts of the body.
(27) Know the heart valves.
Atrioventricular valves (AV valves)
- Each valve has leaf like cusps that are attached to cone-shaped papillary muscles by tendons (chordae tendineae). Right has three cusps (tricuspid). Left has two cusps (bicuspid, mitral). When valve is open, canal is atrioventricular canal.
- Allows blood to flow from the atria to the ventricles but normally prevents the back flow of blood.
- Opening and closing of the valves occur due to the pressure differences between the atria and the ventricles.
(27) Know the heart valves.
- Right (pulmonary); left (atrial). Each cusp is shaped like a cup. When cusps are filled, valve is closed; when cusps are empty, valve is open.
- Open during ventricular contraction
-When pressure in the arteries is greater than the ventricles they snap shut.
(29) What is the function of the chordae tendineae?
-Are a group of tough, tendinous strands in the heart. They are commonly referred to as the "heart strings" since they resemble small pieces of string. Functionally, they play a vital role in holding the atrioventricular valves in place while the heart is pumping blood.
- To prevent the valves from blowing out under the extremely high blood pressure within the ventricles, the _______ holds the cusps of each AV valve on the ventricular side. Once filled with blood, the AV valves form a dome shape and resemble tiny parachutes with the chordae tendineae acting as the strings.
(30) Blood circulation through the heart.
On study guide twice
(1) Blood enters right atrium from superior and infereior venae cavae.
(2) Blood in right atrium flows through right AV valve into right ventricle.
(3) Contraction of right ventricle forces pulmonary valve open.
(4) Blood flows through pulmonary valve into pulmonary trunk.
(5) Blood is distributed by right and left pulmonary arteries to the lungs, where it unloads CO2 and loads O2.
(6) Blood returns from lungs via pulmonary veins to left atrium.
(7) Blood in left atrium flows through left AV valve into left ventricle.
(8)Contraction of left ventricle
(Simultaneous with step 3) Forces aortic valve open.
(9) Blood flows through aortic valve into ascending aorta.
(10) Blood in aorta is distributed to every organ in the body, where it unloads O2 and loads CO2.
(11) Blood returns to right atruim via venae cavae.
(32) Blood flow to and from the lungs
is to pump blood from the
right side of the heart to the lungs
where in the lungs the blood is going to
pick up the oxygen drop off the co2 and
be taken to the left side of the heart.
(1) Right Ventricle
(2) Pulmonary semilunar valves
(3) Pump through pulmonary trunk
(4)Splits to Left and right Pulmonary artery
(5) Pulmonary arteries come into the lungs
(branches or roots- AKA: pulmonary arterials or small arteries- AKA: high resistance vessels. )
(6) Arterial branches into capillary exchange vessels
this is important
bc the exchange site is where the blood picks up oxygen and drops off CO2.
(7) Small veins called pulmonary venuals - 3 pulmonary venuals come together and create a big vein called pulmonary veins.
Now the blood is oxygenated
and bring blood out of the lungs and drop it off at the left side of the heart. (Left atrium)
(9) From the left atrium the blood is pushed down through the bicuspid valve (AKA: mitral valve)
(10) and is now in the left ventricle (and the process continues in a loop)
(33) What is the function of the semi-lunar heart valves?
- Pulmonary and aortic valves regulate the flow of blood from the ventricles ino the great arteries.
-controls the opening from the right ventricle into the pulmonary trunk.
- controls the opening from the left ventricle into the aorta.
(34) What are the properties of the heart skeleton?
- Consists of plate of fibrous connective tissue between atria and ventricles.
- Fibrous rings around valves to support.
- Serves as electrical insulation between atria and ventricles.
- Provides site for muscle attachment.
- It provides structural support for the heart, especially around the valves and the opening of the great vessels; It holds these orifices open and prevents them from excessively stretching when blood surges through them.
- It anchors the cardiocytes and gives them something to pull against.
- As a nonconductor of electricity, it serves as electrical insulation between the atria and the ventricles, so the atria cannot stimulate the ventricles directly.
(This insulation is important to the timing and coordination of electrical contractile activity.)
(35) Properties of the cardiac muscle.
- Involuntarily controlled
- Elongated, branching cells containing 1-2 centrally located nuclei.
- Contains actin and myosin myofilaments.
specialized cell-cell contacts.
- Cell membranes interdigitate
- Desmosomes hold cells together
- Gap junctions allow action potentials to move from one cell to the next.
-Electrically, cardiac muscle of the atria and of the ventricles behaves as a single unit.
(36) Properties of the cardiac muscle cells.
The muscle cells of the heart are unique and responsible for the electrical stimulation that leads to proper mechanical function. Myocardial cells have several different electrophysiologic properties:
-refers to the ability to spontaneously generate an electrical impulse.
-means that the cardiac cells have the ability to respond to an electrical impulse.
-allows for transmission of the electrical impulse to another cardiac cell.
-refers to the ability to contract after an electrical impulse is received.
-is the cell's ability to send electrical impulses in a regularly and evenly paced manner.
-refers to the cell's inability to respond to another electrical impulse
(37) Where are the spontaneous action potentials of the heart generated?
SA node (sinoatrial node)
- Medial to opening of superior vena cava.
- The pace maker.
- Specialized cardiac muscle cells.
- modified cardiocytes in the right atrium.
- initiates the heartbeat and determines the heart-rate.
-Signals from the SA node spread throughout the atria.
(38) Properties of the AV node. (Atrioventricular node)
- Medial to the right atrioventricular valve.
-Acts as an electrical gateway to the ventricles.
-Action potentials conducted more slowly here than in any other part of the system.
-The fibrous skeleton acts as an insulator to prevent currents from getting to the ventricles by any other route.
-Ensures ventricles receive signal to contract after atria have contracted.
(39) Where does ventricular contraction start?
Apex of the heart
- The AV bundle (bundle of HIS), is the pathway by which signals leave the AV node.
-The bundle soon forks into right and left bundle branches, which enter the inter-ventricular septum and descends towards the apex.
(40) What do the waves on the ECG represent?
- Depolarization of atrial myocardium and signals onset of atrial contraction.
-ventricular depolarization and signals onset of ventricular contraction. Re-polarization of atria simultaneously.
-re-polarization of ventricles; precedes ventricular relaxation.
(41) What does systole mean?
the phase of the heartbeat when the heart muscle contracts and pumps blood from the chambers into the arteries.
(41) What does diastole mean?
the phase of the heartbeat when the heart muscle relaxes and allows the chambers to fill with blood
(42) What are the heart sounds from?
S1 and S2
- AKA: lubb and dubb.
- S1 is louder and longer
- S2 is softer and sharper.
(In children it's normal to here a 3rd beat)
-S1 and S2 occur in conjunction with the closing of the valves, as a result of turbulence in the bloodstream and movements of the heart wall.
- S1 (lubb)- occurs at the beginning of phase
Cause of sound
is the tensing of ventricular tissues and tendinous cords (like the twang of a suddenly stretched rubber band), turbulence in the blood as it surges against the closed AV valves and the impact of the heart against the chest wall.
-S2 (dubb)- occurs as blood rebounds from the closed semi-lunar valves and the ventricles expand.
S1- Atrioventricular valves and surrounding fluid vibrations as valves close at beginning of ventricular systole.
-The Tricuspid valve and mitral valve closing.
^(makes the noise)- Lubb
-Palmonic valve and aortic valve open
S2- Results from closure of aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves at the beginning of ventricular diastole
-The palmonic valve and aortic valve close
^(Makes the noise)- Dubb
-Tricuspid and mitral valve open
S3- Caused by turbulent blood flow into ventricles and detected near end of first one-third of diastole.
(43) what is the average blood pressure?
120/80 - 140/90
(44) What is the definition of cardiac output?
- The amount of blood pumped by heart per minute.
(44) What is normal cardiac output?
- 4.7 liters (5 quarts) of blood per minute.
(45) What effect does increased venous return have on the heart?
- the end-diastolic pressure and volume of ventricles are increased, which stretches the sarcomeres, there by increasing preload.
- Changes in ventricular preload dramatically affect ventricular stroke volume by what is called the Frank-starling mechanisms.
(46) What does sympathetic nerve stimulation have on the heart?
- speeds up Heart Rate (HR)
-Increases heart rate and force of contraction. Epinephrine and nor-epinephrine released.
-Supplied by cardiac nerves, innervate the SA and the AV nodes, coronary vessels and the atrial and ventricular myocardium.
(46) What does parasympathetic nerve stimulation have on the heart?
- Decreases Heart rate (HR)
-decreases heart rate, acetylocholine is secreted and hyper-polarizes the heart.
-Supplied by vagus nerve.
(47) What is the neurotransmitter of parasympathetic stimulation of the heart?
Acetylocholine - is secreted and hyperpolarizes the heart.
(48) What is the neurotransmitter of sympathetic stimulation of the heart?
Epinephrine and nor-epinephrine
(49) What are baroreceptors in the aorta for?
- Pressure sensors (also located in the internal carotid arteries.)
-Sends continual signals to the medulla.
-when HR rises, cardiac output increaes and raises blood pressure (here).
-(these) increase ther signaling to the medulla
-the medulla will issue vagal output (signals) to either lower heart rate or higher heart rate ( to lower or higher blood pressure BP)
(50) How do blood pH and blood carbon dioxide levels affect the heart?
-If circulation to the tisues is too slow to remove CO2 as fast as the tissues produce it, the COO2 accumlates in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and produces a state of hypercapnia (CO2 excess).
-CO2 generates hydrogen ions by reacting with water:
-the hydrogen ions lower the PH of the blood and CSF and may create a state of acidosis (Ph < 7.35)
*Hypercapnia and acidosis stimulate the cardiac centers to increase heart rate, thus improving perfusion of the tissues and restoring homeostasis.
(51) How to improve the functional capacity of the heart?
-Diet and Physical (cardio) exercise
THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
(52) Know the types and order of the blood vessels as the blood circulates from the heart and returns.
(Site of exchange with tissue)
(thinner walls than arteries, contain less elastic tissue and fewer smooth muscle cells)
~Medium or large veins
Route of blood flow
Arteries -> Capillaires -> Veins -> Heart.
(53) Know the characteristics of the three types of capillaries.
-No gaps between endothelial cells.
-Less permeable to large molecules than other capillary types. (
(Ex.) Muscle, nervous tissue.
- Have pores.
-Endothelial cells have numerous fenestrae.
-(Fenestrae are areas where cytoplasm is absent and plasma membrane is made of thin, porous diaphragm.)
(Ex.) intestinal villi, ciliary, process of eye, choroid plexus, glomeruli of kidney.
-Large diameter with large fenstrae.
-Less basement membrane.
(Ex.) endocrine glands (large molecules cross their walls.)
-Large diameter sinusoidal capillaries.
-Sparse basement membrane.
-(Ex.) liver, bone marrow.
-are similar in structure but even larger.
(54) What is each layer (tunica) of the blood vessel is composed of?
-Lamina propria (C.T. Layer)
-Internal elastic membrane
-Fenestrated layer of elastic fibers.
- smooth muscle cells arranged circularly around the blood vessel
~vasoconstriction: smooth muscles contract, decrease in blood flow.
~Vasodilation: smooth muscles relax, increase in blood flow.
Tunica externa (adventitia)
-Connective tissue, varies from dense regular near the vessel to loose that merges with the surrounding C.T.
(55) Properties of elastic arteries.
AKA: conducting arteries.
(Ex.) Artoa, common carotid and subclavain arteries, pulmonary trunk, and common iliac arteries.
-Layer of elastic tissue called
internal elastic lamina
-Pressure high and fluctuates between systolic and diastolic.
-More elastic tissue than muscle.
-Relatively thick tunica media
-Thin tunica adventita
(The tunica media is mostly elastic connective tissue. Elastic arteries recoil when stretched, which prevents blood pressure from falling rapidly.)
-Conduction arteries expand as they recive blood during ventricular systole.
-and recoils during diastole.
-expansion takes some of the pressure of the blood so that smaller arteries downstream are subjected to less systolic stress.
-Their expansion stores potential energy and their recoil releases it to keep the blood flowing.
(56) Characteristics of arterioles.
- contain an internal elastic lamina
-one or two layers of smooth muscle cells.
-no external elastic lamina
-adventitia consists of a thin layer of collagen and isolated elastic fibers.
-By the contraction of their muscle fibers, the arterioles generate the "peripheral resistance" that reduces the blood pressure at the periphery, and thereby protects the capillaries and venules.
-Resistance (small) arteries
-Transports blood from small arteries to capillaries
-smallest arteries where the three tunics can be differentiated
-capable of vasoconstriction and dilation.
(57) What is the vasa vasorum and what does it do?
-small blood vessels that supply the walls of larger arteries and veins. AKA: Vessels of vessels
-Present in the
~The function of vasa vasorum is both to deliver nutrients and oxygen to arterial and venous walls and to remove "waste" products, either produced by cells in the wall or introduced by diffusional transport through the endothelium of the artery or vein.
(58) What is the difference between the structure of veins and arteries.?
-Carries blood away from the heart
-Oxygenated blood (except in pulmonary artery)
-High pressure system (bc arteries are pumped
by the heart)
-Low blood volume (15 %)
-Have thick elastic muscular walls
-When emptied retains its round shape
-Have smaller lumans in diameter than veins
-Carries blood towards the heart
-de-oxygenated blood (except in pulmonary veins)
-low pressure system
-High volume (65%)
-Veins have thin translucent walls
-valves to prevent backflow
(and to make sure blood flows in one direction, This is critical because blood flow becomes sluggish in the extremities, as a result of the lower pressure and the effects of gravity.)
-When emptied of blood or no blood flow the vein collapses.
-Have larger lumans in diameter than arteries, allowing more blood flow with less vessel resistance (low pressure)
(59) What type of nerve fibers innervate the blood vessels?
baroreceptors - (a receptor sensitive to change to pressure.)
Vasomotor Fibers - Sympathetic nerve fibers
(60) What does atherosclerosis mean?
- A disease of the arteries characterized by the deposition of plaques of fatty material on their inner walls.
-the growth of lipid deposits in the arterial walls these deposits can become calcified complicated plaques, giving the arteries a hard, bone-like consistency.
-As a result of these degenerative changes blood pressure rises with age.
(61) What is the major artery of the heart?
- the main blood supplier to the body, branches off into two main coronary blood vessels (also called arteries).
-These coronary arteries branch off into smaller arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the entire heart muscle. The right coronary artery supplies blood mainly to the right side of the heart.
(62) What is the major arteries that supplies the brain?
internal carotid arteries
-which arise at the point in the neck where the common carotid arteries bifurcate.
-The internal carotid arteries branch to form two major cerebral arteries, the anterior and middle cerebral arteries.
(63) Where is the axillary artery located?
- A large blood vessel that conveys oxygenated blood to the lateral aspect of the thorax, the axilla (armpit) and the upper limb. Its origin is at the lateral margin of the first rib, before which it is called the subclavian artery.
(64) What is the main vein of the heart?
superior vena cava
and inferior vena cava are veins that return deoxygenated blood from circulation in the body and empty it into the right atrium.
(65) What vein drains the brain?
- Internal jugular
(66) What is the hepatic portal system?
-a group of veins that carry blood from the capillaries of the stomach, intestine, spleen, and pancreas to the sinusoids of the liver.
-Portal system: vascular system that begins and ends at a capillary bed with no pumping mechanism in between.
-Hepatic portal- liver
-Renal portal- kidney
-Hypothalamohypophyseal portal between hypothalamus and pituitary.
-Blood entering the hepatic portal vein is rich with nutrients collected from the intestines, but may also contain toxic substances. Both nutrients and toxic substances will be regulated by the liver
-Nutrients: either taken up and stored or modified chemically and used by other parts of the body
-Biotransformation: Toxic substances can be broken down by hepatocytes or can be made water soluble. To be transported in blood and excreted by the kidneys.
(67) What causes sounds while taking blood pressure?
Systolic-is the peak arterial BP attained during ventricular contraction.
-Turbulent flow-Silence to Noise-Because the vessel is barely open as the blood is going through, the blood has to squeeze its way through witch causes a lot of turbulence.
Diastolic-the minimum arterial BP occurring during the ventricular relaxation between heartbeats.
-Laminar flow-Noise to silence-Smooth flow
(All through Brachial artery)
what causes the greatest increase on blood flow?
(69) What does vascular compliance means?
-The ability of a blood vessel wall to expand and contract passively with changes in pressure is an important function of large arteries and veins
(70) where is resistance is greatest in the circulatory system?
have muscular walls (usually only one to two layers of smooth muscle) and are the primary site of vascular resistance.
-The greatest change in blood pressure and velocity of blood flow occurs at the transition of arterioles to capillaries.
(71) What percent of the blood fluid is lost to the interstitial spaces and then to the lymphatic system?
- 20 liters of plasma is released into the interstitial space of the tissues each day due to capillary filtration. Once this filtrate is out of the bloodstream and in the tissue spaces, it is referred to as interstitial fluid. Of this, 17 liters is reabsorbed directly by the blood vessels.
(72) What is the name of the vascular control center in the lower pons/ upper medulla oblongata?
(73) Which blood regulating mechanisms are short term?
*short-term mechanisms, which regulate blood vessel diameter, heart rate and contractility.
Rising blood pressure•
-Stretching of baroreceptors•
-Increased impulses to the brain•
-Increased parasympathetic activity•
-Decreased sympathetic activity•
-Slowing of heart rate•
-Increased arterial pressure•
Falling blood pressure
-Decreased impulses to the brain•
-Decreased parasympathetic activity•
-Increased sympathetic activity•
-Increased heart rate and contractility•
-Release of epinephrine andnorepinephrine from adrenal gland
(74) How does the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone Mechanism works?
long term mechanisms for blood pressure regulation.
*Long-term mechanisms, which regulate blood volume
- Renal regualtion of blood volume via the renin angiotensin mechanism and aldosterone mechanism.
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