Chapter 8 Sections 1-3
Terms in this set (21)
William The Conqueror
The first Norman king of England. He was a descendant of Vikings and claimed the throne after King Edward, his relative, died. He created a strong army and won the support of the Pope.
A legal system that is based upon court rulings and customs. It applied to all the citizens of England. Henry II created the base for this system when he focused his rule on broadening the royal justice system.
A group of men who were sworn to tell the truth. Early ones determined what cases should be put on trial. The group later evolved and became 12 neighbors of the accused person.
The son of Henry II. He was a cunning and untrustworthy leader and had many powerful enemies. He lost all his battles picked with the powerful men.
The "great charter" was a document that contained ideas that would shape England's future: that nobles (and eventually all people) had certain rights and the royals had to follow the law.
Due Process of Law
"By legal judgement of his peers or by the law of the land". This clause has become the basis of this right.
The principle that nobody can be in prison without being charged with a specific crime. It was based off the same clause as Due Process of Law.
The group of people called together to protect magma carta. It was originally called the Great Council, then became this, which led to it becoming England's legislature.
A very religious king of France and an eventual saint. He persecuted Jews and led crusades against the Muslims. He helped improve monarchy and expand the royal courts. By the time of his death, France was becoming an efficient centralized monarchy.
Holy Roman Empire
An empire from the Middle Ages that encompassed areas from Germany to Italy. They were the biggest enemies of the Pope.
The king of Germany and the eventual Holy Roman Emperor. During his reign, his rivalry with Pope Gregory VII led to conflict between the church and the monarchy.
Pope Gregory VII
Pope when Henry IV was king. He instituted many church reforms and banned lay investiture.
Pope Gregory VII band this. It was the electing of bishops by people who were not members of the clergy.
The Holy Roman Emperor known as "Red Beard". He sought to bring much of Italy, especially the wealthiest, into his control. The Pope and the Lombard League eventually defeated him.
Pope Innocent III
The pope that claimed supremacy over all other leaders. He fought with many other leaders and usually came out victorious. When King John of England tried to name the Archbishop of Canterbury, he famously excommunicated the king and placed England under interdict.
The series of battles between the Christians and Muslims where they fought for land in the Middle East. The wars lasted for 200 years.
Jerusalem and other Palestinian places where Christians believe Jesus lived and preached. The Seljuks had power over this land during the Middle Ages and it prevented Christian pilgrimages.
Pope Urban II
The pope that allowed Christian knights to fight alongside the Byzantines against the Muslim Turks.
The campaign to drive Muslims from the Iberian peninsula of modern day Europe. It was part of the crusades.
Ferdinand and Isabella
They unified the state known as Spain when they got married. When their forces combined, they made final push against the Muslim stronghold in Granada. When they did this, reconquista was complete.
The Christian court that convicted people of heresy. When Isabella launched a crusade against the Jews and Muslims, she forced them to convert and if not, they could be tried by this court.
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