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Animal Bio CH. 17
Terms in this set (38)
facilitates the exchange of O2 and CO2 between your body and the environment
- exists exclusively in the upper portion of the human body
what are the 3 stages of respiration?
breathing, external respiration, and internal respiration
what is the purpose of the upper respiratory system?
filters, warms, and humidifies air
- involved exclusively in breathing portion of respiration
- air enters the body through the nose or mouth
interior of the nose and adjacent internal cavity
- lined with blood vessels that warm and moisten the air
- covered in muscles
- nasal epithelial cells have cilia
what is mucus and cilia's role in the nasal cavity?
mucus (snot)- which traps fine particulates
cilia- they beat in coordination to move particle-filled mucus to back of cavity(your throat)
cavity that connects your mouth and nasal cavity
- common passageway for food and air
- food continue to esophagus, air to the lungs through the trachea (windpipe)
hollow muscular organ forming air passage to lungs
- voice box
- crucial to maintaining an open airway
- contains the epiglottis, glottis, and vocal cords
flexible cartilage flap responsible for directing food into the esophagus and air into the trachea
2 folds of connective tissue that controls the glottis
- vibration of tissues creates sound
- tone of voice is produced by controlling the flow of air through the vocal cords
the opening created by the vocal cords for air movement
series of C-shaped cartilage rings connected by smooth muscle that keep the trachea open
- muscles allow trachea to change diameter slightly for coughing) focused air movement
lower respiratory system
the wind pipe; cartilaginous tube that connects larynx to lungs
- lined with cilia and mucus
what is cilia and mucus' role in the trachea?
move particles up and away from lungs to keep them clear of debris, lines the trachea
large branching areas splitting from trachea
- airways are reinforced with cartilage
- branch into smaller and smaller airways
- similar to a tree structure
smallest airways at tips of bronchi, no cartilage
- collapse when air is expelled, expand when air is inhaled
hollow cavities at the end of bronchioles where exchange occurs
- arranged in clusters like grapes ~300 million in total
- expand, like balloons, when air is inhaled
- only portion of the system where gas exchange occurs
respiratory organs composed of supportive tissue enclosing the bronchi, bronchioles, blood vessels, and alveoli
- occupy the majority of the chest cavity
- are not hollow sacs, instead are sponge-like
- right lung has 3 lobes, left has 2
- left lung smaller due to placement of the heart beneath it
- lobes can be removed without complete loss of lung function (ex: if damaged or diseased)
getting air into and out of the lungs via muscle contraction and relaxation
broad sheet of muscle that separates chest cavity from abdominal cavity
- contracts and relaxes based on input from the respiratory center
- relaxed state, inspiration, expiration
at rest, both the diaphragm and the chest muscles are released
- the diaphragm appears dome shaped
- balled up state
the diaphragm contracts, pulling its center downward and flattening which increases lung volume
- the volume increase lowers the air pressure in the lungs allowing outside air to rush in
- straight line; contracted
as diaphragm releases, it returns to its dome shape
- lungs become smaller creating higher air pressure in your lungs than in the air around you, whereby gas flows out of your lungs
the pressure and volume of a gas have an inverse relationship
- as one goes up, the other goes down
- as volume increases, pressure decreases
- as volume decreases, pressure increases
Boyle's gas law
why does air rush into your lungs when you inspire?
because the air pressure in your lungs is lower than the pressure in the air around you
- when your diaphragm contracts
medulla oblongata portion of the brain maintains normal breathing patterns by monitoring CO2 levels in the blood
- automatic, involuntary reflex
- can be overridden temporarily by conscious portion of brain (cerebrum)
- sends signals to diaphragm and chest muscles when CO2 levels change blood pH outside homeostatic range
- O2 levels are monitored to a lesser degree
respiratory control center
what is the respiratory system responsible for?
supply O2 and remove CO2 to/from all cells
exchange of gases between inhaled air and blood in capillaries surrounded alveoli
exchange of gases between blood and tissue
why does your breathing rate increase when you exercise?
so much CO2 is being produced, it needs to exit
- cellular respiration is in order to stay alive
when does hyperventilation occur?
over breathing; occurs when a person releases CO2 too quickly
describe the movement of blood through the body as it relates to internal and external respiration
the respiratory system acts as a shared gas exchange system capable of servicing every cell in the body via the blood system
- each of the trillions of cells in the human body undergo cellular respiration to stay alive
the concentration of gas in a particular space
- gravity pulls gas molecules downward thereby creating greater air pressure of lower attitudes
- the more gas that is above you, the more weight that is bearing down on you
protein hormone that stimulates the production of new RBC's
1) respiratory control center recognizes imbalance in O2 levels
2) signals kidneys to release EPO
3) EPO signal is recognized by bone marrow tissues which begin to produce more RBC
- changes in O2 levels effect the production of RBC
- homeostatic mechanism, negative feedback loop
what is the portion of the autonomic nervous system that controls breathing?
where does gas exchange occur in the respiratory system?
blood coming from the body into the capillaries of the lungs is....
high in oxygen content
when the diaphragm relaxes.....
air flows out of the lungs
blood exiting which of the structures would have the highest pressure?
the left ventricle
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