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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Chapter 12 Review
This set will help you prepare for our test on Reconstruction
Terms in this set (47)
The period after the Civil War (1865-1877) in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union.
Who believed they should control Reconstruction?
President Lincoln, President Johnson, Congress
Ten Percent Plan
Lincoln's Reconstruction Plan in 1863. It gave amnesty to all southerners (minute high ranking officials) who took an oath of loyalty. When 10% of a state's voters took the oath, they could form a new state government which must ban slavery.
What was the main criticism of the Ten Percent Plan?
It was too lenient
Proposed Reconstruction plan by Congress in 1864 that required a majority of a state's voters to take a loyalty oath. Lincoln vetoed the bill because he believed it was too harsh and would only encourage Southerners to continue fighting the war.
John Wilkes Booth
American stage actor who, as part of a conspiracy plot, assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865.
April 14, 1865, he was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theater/ with his death, all hope of the South coming back easily into the Union faded
17th President of the United States, A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
Johnson's Reconstruction Plan
Proposal in 1865 which gave amnesty to all southerners who took an oath of loyalty (except high ranking officials and rich planters). It set no % of a state's voters who needed to take the oath. The new state government must repeal secession, abolish slavery, and refuse to pay Confederate war debts. It offered no help to the 4 million freedmen.
Laws passed by Southern state governments during Reconstruction aimed at keeping freedmen in slave-like conditions and supplying planters with a cheap supply of labor
Ku Klux Klan
A secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights
The rights of citizens to political and social freedom and equality
Organization created at end of Civil War that aided southerns (mainly former slaves) with education, finding food, shelter and employment.
Term given to former slaves
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Law that gave African Americans citizenship and equal benefit of the law
An action taken by Congress to reverse a presidential veto, requiring a two-thirds majority in each chamber (the House and the Senate).
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
A small group of Congressmen and Senators led by Thaddeus Stevens who wanted to use Reconstruction to give blacks equality and punish the South.
A series of 4 laws created by Congress during Radical Reconstruction
Name given to the Reconstruction Plan created by Congress in 1867. It divided the South into 5 districts under the control of the U.S. Army. It required each state to ratify the 14th amendment, write new state constitutions ensuring blacks the right to vote, and elect new government officials by allowing all men (including blacks) to vote. This plan gave citizenship and equality to freedmen (14th amendment) and the right to vote (15th amendment).
Tenure of Office Act
In 1867 this Act was passed which limited the President's power by prohibiting the President from removing members of the cabinet without Senate consent. Goal was to bar Johnson from firing Secretary of War Stanton.
Charges against a president approved by a majority of the House of Representatives
What is the role of the Senate during impeachment?
They serve as a jury and decide the guilt of the accused (President Johnson in this case).
Election of 1868
Republican Ulysses S. Grant was elected President thanks to 500,000 African American voters in the South. This result inspired the 15th Amendment.
Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude (slavery)
Captain who was in charge of the Andersonville Prison. He was executed for cruelty at the prison
Former Confederate President who was sentenced to two years in jail.
Derogatory term given to Southerners who allied themselves with Republicans and supported Reconstruction.
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states;
Famous Southern General who worked with Reconstruction people from the North after the Civil War and because of this, he was hated by the South
Black Mississippi senator elected to the seat that had been occupied by Jefferson Davis when the South seceded
Southern Homestead Act
law that set aside 45 million acres of government-owned land in several southern states to provide free farms for African Americans
A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops.
system of farming where farmers rented their land from the landowner, and were allowed to grow what ever crop they preferred.
(1870-1871) Congress in response to the KKK and others, passed these acts to protect black voters. It created penalties on person who interfered with any citizen's right to vote. Outlaws the activities of the KKK
Group of Republicans that broke with the Republican party over the Enforcement Acts and voted with the Democrats (only on matters of Reconstruction)
Group of cases resulting in one decision by the Supreme Court in 1873 that contradicted the intent of the 14th Amendment, stating that most citizens rights remained under state, not federal control.
U.S. v. Reese
Supreme Court ruling that said that poll taxes, literacy tests, and the grandfather clauses (all used to prevent blacks from voting) were OK. This weakened the 15th amendment.
Democrats who regained control of Southern state governments at the end of Reconstruction and passed Jim Crow Laws.
Election of 1876
Controversial election won by Republican Rutherford B. Hayes over Democrat Samuel J. Tilden. Hayes was award 20 disputed Electoral votes by a commission giving him the narrow victory.
Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican president who won thanks to the Compromise of 1877.
Samuel J. Tilden
Democrat who lost the Election of 1876 thanks to the Compromise of 1877.
Compromise of 1877
Deal that gave Republican Rutherford B. Hayes the victory in the Election of 1876 and in exchange the North agreed to pull the troops out of the South - essentially ended Reconstruction.
Nickname given to the South after the Civil War due to a growth of industry and economic change
Jim Crow Laws
Southern state laws that limited the rights of blacks at the end of Reconstruction (ex - poll taxes, literacy tests, etc...)
A term used to describe the tendency of the southern states to vote Democratic after the Civil War (1870s-1970s)
Recommended textbook explanations
The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st Century (California Edition)
Gerald A. Danzer, J. Jorge Klor de Alva, Larry S. Krieger, Louis E. Wilson, Nancy Woloch
United States History: Modern America (California)
Alan Taylor, Emma J. Lapsansky-Werner, Peter B. Levy, Randy Roberts
United States History: Beginnings to 1877 (Florida)
Deborah Gray White, William Deverell
The American Vision: Modern Times California Edition
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