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Psych Unit 14
Terms in this set (34)
The theory that we can explain someone's behavior by crediting either their traits/disposition or the situation at hand.
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
Foot in the Door Phenomenon
The tendency for people to comply with some large request after first agreeing to a smaller one.
Door in the Face Phenomenon
When someone agrees to a smaller request after first being asked to agree to a larger one
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
The notion that we experience discomfort, or dissonance, when our thoughts, beliefs, or behaviors are inconsistent with each other. We tend to change our thinking or our behavior to resolve the dissonance.
Refers to non-conscious mimicry of the postures, mannerisms, facial expressions and other behaviors of one's interaction partners, such that one's behaviors passively and unintentionally changes to match that of others in one's current social environment.
A type of social influence involving a change in belief or behavior in order to fit in with a group
Normative Social Influences
A type of social influence leading to conformity. It is defined in social psychology as "the influence of other people that leads us to conform in order to be liked and accepted by them."
Informational Social Influence
When we do not know how to behave, we copy other people. They thus act as information sources for how to behave as we assume they know what they are doing.
The tendency for people to perform better in the presence of others if it is simple or well-rehearsed task.
The phenomenon of a person exerting less effort to achieve a goal when they work in a group than when they work alone.
A concept in social psychology that is generally thought of as the loss of self-awareness in a group.
The phenomenon that when placed in group situations, people will make decisions and form opinions to more of an extreme than when they are individual situations.
A psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people, in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in one making a decision based on the group rather than their actual preference.
An unfavorable opinion or feeling formed beforehand or without knowledge, thought, or reason.
Making a generalization on a small sample size of people. Representative heuristic.
We as opposed to them
Them as opposed to us
We tend to favor our own group over the outgroup. We are better than them.
When problems occur, people do not like to blame themselves. They will thus actively seek scapegoats onto whom they can displace their aggression. These may be out-group individuals or even entire groups.
Just World Theory
A person's actions are inherently inclined to bring morally fair and fitting consequences to that person.
A situation is which both groups are looking out for their best interest, leaving a problem unsolved.
Mirror image perception
Reciprocal views of one another usually held by parties in conflict, as in each may view itself as moral and peace-loving and the other as evil and aggressive.
We tend to view ourselves favorably
When someone else's expectations of/for a person influences the person to meet that expectation.
The hypothesis that aggression occurs as a result of one being blocked from reaching a goal.
Hostile Aggression vs. Instrumental Aggression
Hostile is when aggression is the result of anger. Instrumental is when the aggression is being used to get something.
Mere exposure effect
A psychological phenomenon by which people tend to develop a preference for things merely because they are familiar with them.
An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another
deep affectionate attachment we feel for those our lives are intertwined with
Actions that are selfless and sometimes even self-sacrificing
The bystander effect occurs when the presence of others discourages an individual from intervening in an emergency situation. It is probably due to a diffusion of responsibility. Reasons one might not help are: 1. Don't notice 2. Don't perceive as emergency 3. Think someone else will help
Social Exchange Theory
We weigh the costs and benefits of the amount of effort we will put into a relationship. We also look for reciprocity.
GRIT (Graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension reduction)
An approach to de-escalation of tension and conflict between two parties.
Recommended textbook explanations
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
Myers' Psychology for the AP Course
David G Myers
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