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Music History Exam 2
Terms in this set (63)
Medieval vs. Renaissance Values
The ren was all about the individual. Humanism- Human achievement. Look back at ancient greek culture. Engage in society rather than withdraw. Focus on urban the City= Center of culture. During Ren composers sign their work.
Medieval vs. Renaissance Art
Ren is focus on human being features and what not. Free standing figures. Human focus check out that one David Giotto painting,. Medieval Art is a bit flat, solely religious.
Guillaume Dufay Franco-Flemish (ca. 1397-1474)
He was considered the "bridge" composer between the Renaissance and middle ages (sort of had a foot in both). Made use of isorhythm (middle age technique) but used Ren harmony and text. Wrote masses, motets, and chansons. Wrote the 1430's banger : Missa L'homme arme'
Johannes Ockeghem Franco-Flemish ( Died in 1497)
Served as a court composer. Several composers wrote tributes to him. Wrote 13 masses, masses in any mode. Bass really became Bass. Thicker texture than Dufay more 3rds and 6ths. Wrote Missa Prolationem which was a double canon not based on pre existing tenor, Contrapuntal. Also wrote more typical masses like Missa L'homme Arme where there is tension between from and expression. Expression beats out form.
Josquin De Prez French (ca. 1440-1521)
Sort of combined together Dufay and Ockeghem. Technical Wizardry with beauty and expression. Pervading imitation -duet sections, but permeates in all 4 parts. Began career in milan as a singer in Cathedral. 1501 ends up in the court of Louis the 12th. Wrote a motet for Louis. Wrote a Mass for Duke of Ferrara, formed cantus firmus by using solfege to match syllables of Ferrara. Used Musica Reservata-text painting, word painting in El Grillio and some other bangers.
Renaissance definition of Chanson
Show a use of more imitative counterpoint among all three parts. Made use of the traditional formes fixes of courtly poetry. They rearranged chansons, altered them and even transcribed them for instruments
Text painting, word painting, listen to EL GRILLLLLIOOO (its a good one)
Renaissance definition of Motet
Could be written on a wide range of relatively unfamiliar texts that offered interesting and new possibilities for word-music relationship. Attention to expressive detail.
Cantus Firmus Mass
Same Chant melody in tenor for each movement. 4 voice texture. Uses rhythm of popular song or adds own rhythm to chant. Dufay wrote some.
Masses that were modeled after polyphonic pieces. All voice parts were modeled after pre existing polyphonic piece
Takes chant melody and breaks it up into different phrases, sticking them in each movement.
Frottola and Lauda as precursors to Madrigal
*The Secular Form. El Grillio= foreshadow/ precursor. Fortolla- Italian, secular, 4 parts syllabic and mostly homophonic with melody in upper part. Lauda= Italian praise, non-liturgical in middle ages, 4 part strophic song.
text mostly serious, erotic (the orgasm one we listened to), poetry is supposed to be reflected by the music.
Early Madrigals (1520-1550)
Verdelot, Arcadelt, Festa, de Rore were important composers. These looked and sounded like french chansons. Homophonic, square rhythm and 4 parts. Mix of some polyphony. Attempts similar to musica reservata. Mostly vocal chamber pieces.
Middle Period Madrigals (1550-1575)
Marenzio de Rore, Phillip da Monte were important composers. Contrary to early period in that now we have five voices instead of four. Not strophic. Through composed with the addition of some chromaticism. Petrarchan movement, contrasts within poem.
Late Period Madrigals (1575-1600)
Gesualdo, Monteverdi, Gastoldi were important composers. XTREME chromaticism. Madrigalism - word painting. Danger= tension because it ignores text and could create a loss of cohesion.
Concerto delle donne
Instilled in listeners an insatiable appetite for high voices
Fourteenth century Italian poet who sparked a movement in which his Sonnets and other poems were analyzed and imitated. He used a combination of pleasantness and seriousness in his writing, as well as a strong ability to match sound qualities of the verses with their meanings. His poetry sparked the minds of many Italian composers starting the Petrarchal movement.
A northern composer and poet who sang in the Pope's chapel for a long time before moving to a royal chapel in Paris. He lived in the 16th century and wrote the Madrigal I'll Bianco e dolce cigno, a piece that uses death as a metaphor for sexual climax. It contrasts a sweet, homophonic texture, and uses many initiative entrances to reference the "thousand deaths" he experiences. Known for his Madrigals.
Native Italian composer who wrote many Madrigals. He lived during the mid to late 16th century and spent most of his career in Rome serving several cardinals. He depicted contrasting ideas and images in his music with great craftsmanship. He favored pastoral poetry, and wrote over 400 Madrigals. His most famous is solo e pensoso. It used much word painting and a vast soundscape.
Prince of Venosa who lived in the late 16th and early 17th century. He demanded publication of his unconventional music, but was an ametuer. He also murdered his wife after he caught her sleeping with another man. He wrote unique Madrigals dwelling in themes of death by using opposite effects, such as chromaticism and distonicism. He also avoided conventional cadences to create continuity.
A late 16th to early 17th century composer who made a shift in Madrigals from Polyphonic vocal ensembles to instrumentally accompanied music. He wrote eight books of Madrigals and used his expressive power by combining homophonic and contrapuntal part writing and his free use of dissonance.
Using musical gestures to reinforce or suggest images in a text, such as a rising gesture on the word "ascend". Evokes the meaning of individual words or phrases with a musical image.
A particularly evocative or thoroughly conventional instance of text painting, so called because of the prominent role of word painting in Madrigals.
First half of 16th century. Less polyphonic and chromatic than the Italian madrigal. An important composer is Claude de Serimisy. Pierre Attaignant was a publisher and important in the development of chanson. Simple, homophonic melody in upper voice like the frottola. Light, airy, refined sounding, double meaning
Second half of 16th century. It paralled to the Petrarchan movement in Italy. Academy of poetry and music, they were interesting in Ancient Greece and looking at them for inspiration. Important composer is Claude le Jeune. Free combo of duple and triple and dance like. Stressed syllables are given longer notes than unstressed syllables
this chanson evokes a sound scape of the topic. It is different than word painting. Birdcalls are an example. An important compo ser is Clement Janequin.
Italian madrigals translated accross the Alps (1588).
were a cappella, predominantly light in style, and generally began as either copies or direct translations of Italian models. Most were for three to six voices.
Earliest and most prolific English madrigal composer. All of his madrigals were based on Italian models. Published a collection of 25 madrigals called "The Triumphes of Oriana" and all of them ended with "long live fair Oriana."
Leading English madrigal composer. Composed "As Vesta was" (can be found in The Triumphes of Oriana) and capitalized on word painting.
Madrigals were replaced by Lute songs and John Dowland was the leader. It is all about the poems. They are usually one singer and lute which is a guitar like instrument.
He was the leader of English Lute songs. He did his own thing and set his own way. He wrote Flow, my Tears.
A 16th-century religious and political challenge to papal authority promoted by Martin Luther, King Henry VIII and others, led to the Thirty Years War and the Counter-Reformation.
Luther on music
He was open to music and instruments in the church and wanted singing to be done in the congregation and not the choir. He believed that music is apart of creation and creation is good so it should be in the church.
Music in Lutheran church
Reflects Luther's views on music in church. Entire ongregation should participate in the text and music in order to experience their faith through direct contact with Scripture. In Latin or German.
1526 Hymns in German and sung by the whole congregation. A Might Fortress (probably written by Luther). Used contraficta.
melody in the tenor part at first like usual but then moved to the soprano part.
A book of sacred chorales
taking secular music and putting sacred words to it
Zwingli on music
He did not want any music in worship but also a very good musician. He believed that music was corrupted by sin and had no place in worship. He eve nailed the organ shut.
Calvin on music
He believes that music has a place in the church but it is also distracting. He also believed that they should only sing scripture, no instruments, and monophonic vocal music
Music in the Calvinist/Reformed church
The only music that was allowed was singing psalms to monophonic tunes published in collections called Psalters.
Music for Calvinist psalms. Tunes in a psalter
Psalms, Luke, and 10 Commandments also French
Historical overview of 16th cent England
War of the Roses declined music production. English composers were stuck in England and not getting over to Europe and vice versa. 5 part texture made things thicker and fuller. Etan choir book survived with 67 antiphons to Virgin Mary.
Music under Henry VII
Music did not change very much so there was complex polyphony, mostly to the Virgin Mary, Latin
Music under Edward VI
simple 4 part homophonic and some polyphony but minimal (text needs to be understood). Switched to English and use of Book of Common Prayer.
Music under Mary Tudor
back to catholic so services are in Latin and music becomes more elaborate
Music under Elizabeth I
Via Media (the middle way) period of peace and stability and she wanted to keep Latin and English depending on what people knew. She was a musician herslef and appreciated the beauty of music.
created by Henry VIII. The service texts are the same every week and there are two types 1) Great Service and 2) Short Service. The Anthem was developed and it is similar to the Latin motet.
one composer that survived and survived throughout all of the Monarchs. He petitioned Queen Elizabeth to print music with Byrd. He was a devout catholic but was protected because he was so good.
He studied with Tallis. He remained catholic but worked through for the monarchs. He composed Latin masses in secret and Latin motets for special things. He wrote mostly anthems. Wrote- Sing Joyfully unto God.
He was a leader of the English reformation and Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, and for a short time of Mary I. He helped build the case for Henry's anullment. He also wrote and compiled the first two editions of the Book of Common Prayer.
Service (great and short)
Mass but Anglican. Great-- long, elaborate, for special occasions.
Anthem (full and verse)
Developed in the Anglican Church. there is full and verse
An anthem that is polyphonic and acapella
An Anthem that has instruments, organ, solo, and choral parts.
Book of Common Prayer
has all prayers and instructions for worship in English
Council of Trent (1545-68)
Issues-- use of secular cantus firmus in sacred music, complex polyphony too difficult to understand text, inappropriate behavior of church musicians, and inappropriate use of instruments
Italian (Rome). Choirboy, choirmaster, and composer. Polyphony that can be understood! Stile antico: his style was smooth, nice melodies important with harmony secondary, careful use of dissonance. Good balance of smooth melody and harmonic cooperation. Wrote mainly sacred masses and motets
Tomas Luis de Victoria (1548-1611)
Spanish. More adventurous harmony, using notes outside the mode
Orlando di Lasso (1532-94)
Italian. Combined different styles and genres. Wrote secular and sacred music