APGOV BIG 15 CASES & BIG 9 DOCS

Required Cases and documents for AP Test
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Federalist No. 10
A large, diverse republic is the best way to control/tame the influence of factions
Brutus No. I
The new government set up by the Constitution is all-too powerful; a confederation would be better
Declaration of Independence
Document based on human liberty and consent of the governed; advocated a government set up freely by the people who maintain natural rights of life, liberty , and the pursuit of happiness.
Articles of Confederation
U.S.'s first constitution that had no executive or national judiciary and based on heavy state sovereignty, ultimately creating a too-weak national government
The U.S. Constitution
A document that sets up a federal republic with three independent, coequal branches of government and a Bill of Rights to limit government and protect individual liberty.
Federalist No. 51
Separation of powers and checks & balances allow for an effective national government but will also protect individuals' liberties
Letter From a Birmingham Jail
Encouraged non-violent protest against segregation and claimed that "justice too long delayed is justice denied."
Federalist No. 70
A single executive is most effective because he/she can more easily be held accountable
Federalist No. 78
Advocates creating the "least powerful" branch of government that can settle disputes, check the other two branches, and be politically insulated with lifetime appointments.
Marbury v. Madison
Establishes the power of Judicial Review of the Supreme Court
McCulloch v. Maryland
Congress does have Implied Powers and the Supremacy Clause gives the national government power to supersede state action; e.g. taxing a national bank
Schenck v. United States
Upholds national Sedition & Espionage laws, allowing government to limit speech if it constitutes a "clear & present danger."
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
Overruled the Plessy v. Ferguson doctrine of "separate but equal;" banned racial segregation in public schools
Baker v. Carr
Allows the Supreme Court to rule on state redistricting disputes; paves the way for the "one person, one vote" principle
Engel v. Vitale
Schools cannot sanction a voluntary prayer even if it is non-denominational; violation of the Establishment Clause
Gideon v. Wainright
Incorporates the 6th Amendment's guaranteed right to counsel even if the accused cannot afford one; i.e. public defender
Tinker v. Des Moines
Student speech can be limited in schools if it disrupts the learning environment or violates others' rights; students do not "shed their constitutional rights at the school house door."
NY Times v. United States
The U.S. must maintain a free press unless the government can prove a national security threat; the president may not hide information (Pentagon Papers) from the public
Wisconsin v. Yoder
Incorporates the Free Exercise Clause: states can't force people to go to school if they object on religious/moral grounds.
Roe v. Wade
Enhanced privacy rights from precedent case Griswold v. Connecticut by legalizing abortion
Shaw v. Reno
"Bizarrely shaped" congressional districts are indicative of racial gerrymandering and thus unconstitutional
United States v. Lopez
Congress took unconstitutional power in using the Commerce Clause to ban guns in all U.S. school zones.
McDonald v. Chicago
Incorporates the 2nd Amendment: overturns a state law regulating citizen access to handguns
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission
Government ban on political spending by corporations or labor unions violates the 1st Amendment guarantee of free speech. "Money is speech; Corporations are people."
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