Russian Revolution 1905-17
Terms in this set (130)
Russia's population in 1900
When did Nicholas II come to power?
How long did the Romanov dynasty last?
What percent of the population was not Russian?
Racial groups in Russia
Armenians, Slvas, Balts, Poles and Ukranians
What was Russification?
All Russians HAD TO learn Russian language and convert to Orthodox Christianity. Enforced by Tsar.
Who emancipated the Serfs?
Czar Alexander II, to create a labor force to industrialize Russia
Social Hierarchy in Russia
Emancipation of the Serfs
Alexander II in 1861 ended serfdom in Russia; serfs did not obtain political rights and had to pay the aristocracy for lands gained.
- most were stuck with redemption payments for the land they had been granted.
- most peasants were loyal to the tsar but disliked the officials who demanded taxes and services.
- could own propery and marry without land lords permission
How many years did the peasants have to pay for land they were granted?
Majority was peasants
few middle class
nobles relied on land but refused to spend money on improving agriculture
Peasant farming soil wise
soil- some farmed on fertile land, other had arid ground
What were communes?
also known as mirs, groups or communities of peasant farmers. Basically agricultural co-operatives with farmland divided up among peasant households.
- controlled amount of land peasants farmed, usually insuffient.
varied from the Baltic states in the west to Siberia in the east.
peasants in the Baltic had better land
conditions of peasant living
living conditions was the most serious problem in Russia
famines were frequent and transportation was poor, meaning that food was not circulated through out the country well
production levels were low
encouraged to move from west of Russia to Siberia but the land was too rough to support any farming
what was the land bank
created in 1863, founded to provide $ for local communities and independent peasants to buy land.
1905 redemption payments were canceled but made little diff
agricultural methods were underdeveloped: peasants and land owners had no interest to modernize
What did Russia export? Did they make any profit?
Russia exported wheat bit the profits did not aid the peasants and central gov did not impose taxes on landowners.
What aided the industry?
The railway increased industry and wheat export which also assisted foreign trade
How was Russia's tax system?
Government revenues were limited by tax system. income and land were taxed less than indirect taxes on commodities and food.
peasants were taxed more than the nobles
Where did a majority of the taxes go?
lower classes taxes went into the pockets of the greedy tax collectors
funds were used for the army and police and never used to improve the economy
what was Nicholas ii opinion on reforms
not interested, firmly committed to autocracy
What was a zemstvo?
councils set up by alexander to give peasants and urban workers responsibilities
ran by elected leaders.
in charge of education, health, local transport and small amount of taxes could be raised,
Nicholas tried to weaken the Zemstva
could be overruled by governors and other officials
provided sense of self gov for small towns but system was not enabled in ethnic towns in Russia
Qualities of Nicholas II?
Isolated at court, not intrigued about the matters of the government
swayed easily by advice
ministers appointed due to social status instead of their abilities
What was the state council?
had no power, mostly old men appointed due to their time of service rather than skill
appointed for life but could be dismissed
usually gave advice the tsar wanted instead of the truth
the Russian sentate did what?
appointed by tsar
supposed to oversee administration
What were Sergei Witte reforms?
increase taxes and raise money abroad by giving investors high rates of interest.
outcomes of sergei witte reforms
trans-Siberian railway was built and the coal industry grew in Ukraine
negatives of witte reforms
taxes were increased, affected peasants negatively
countrys national debt increased
standard of living for russias population declined
Why did Japan attack Russia?
both countries saw the possibility of expanding their power within Manchuria, eastern China and Korea
Port Arthur in Manchuria offered Russia an ice free harbour
Japan insisted Russia control Manchuria if they could have korea
negotations broke down and japan attacked port arthur
When did Japan attack Port Arthur?
What was Russia's weakness in the war?
Russia had a poor navy
ships were sent from the Baltic to the west to fight japan
When was the Battle of Tsushimia
MAy 27-28 1905
Japan destroyed 2/3 of the Russia fleet
What was the treaty between Japan and Russia?
Portsmouth signed in 1905
what were the consequences of the war?
japan was seen as more modern, first Asian country to defeat a European
russias weakness was exemplified
Russia turned to the Balkans, consequences which led to WWI
major cause of 1905 rev
Causes of the 1905 Revolution in Russia
poor economic conditions for serfs, little improvement since emancipation
economic recession, high rates of unemployment
nationalist unrest of ethnic groups due to russification
unrest with repression further angered ppl
When was Bloody Sunday?
January 22, 1905
Who was the priest involved in Bloody Sunday?
what were father gapons requests
father gapon led a peaceful march in Moscow to petition the tsar for land reforms and an assembly elected by universal sufferage
Where was Bloody Sunday?
Who dispersed the crowd on bloody sunday
examples of strikes in 1905
industrial workers formed trade unions
sailors on battleships, Potemkin mutined
faults of 1905 revolution
revolutionaires were disorganized
army was loyal to tsar
What was the October Manifesto?
It was written in response to the Revolution of 1905 and created in order to foster a sense of democracy in Russia so people felt like they had more say in government
What did the October Manifesto promise?
"Freedom of person, conscience, speech, assembly, and union"; made dumas
When was the October Manifesto issued?
17th October 1905
what were the reactions to the October manifesto
rebels felt they had been heard, land owners would be for
Nicholas II reaction to the October Manifesto?
unwilling to enfore the reforms he had promised and introduced the fundamental laws
What were the Fundamental Laws?
All laws approved by Tsar
Tsar appoints government ministers
asserted his autocratic powers
Tsar could introduce and veto laws
ministers appointed by tsar
Governments reaction to October MAnifesto
police and army harassed the people and opponents of the tsar
15,000 people were killed and 70,000 were arrested
What was the Duma
Russia's first parliament elected body but did not represent a democracy
Met in 1906
represented a minority of the population
restricted to landowners
limited to control of a small control of russias budget
When did the second duma meet?
when did the third duma meet?
What were the Cadets
What were Decembrists?
inspired by a revolt against tsar
saw agriculture as a primary problem
believed in strict law and order
repressed any uprising
when was Stolypin appointed
What was stolypins necktie
used to punish rebels
Stolypin's agricultural reforms
believed most beneficial change to encourage growth of a wealthy peasant class or Kulaks
wished to make peasants independent of mirs
What were Kulaks?
purpose of the mirs?
oversaw work of the peasants and were generally restrictive
directed what a land a peasant could work and which crops could be grown
what was the proletriat
alternative name for industrial working class
Stolypin Industrial reforms
industry boomed, trade with other countries like Britain and France improved
Russia had natural resources such as coal, oils, metal and wood
living conditions of the proletariat
squalid housing and unhealthy conditions
little medical care
standard education was low
workers had no rights
trade unions were banned
what were the demands of the proletariat?
max working week
health and insurance provisions
When did strikes begin to increase?
examples of protest in 1909-1914
students staging protests
shop workers and railway employees went on strike
even sailors in the navy were dissatisfied
What is anarchism?
belief in the abolition of all government and the organization of society on a voluntary, cooperative basis without recourse to force or compulsion.
no form of gov in is needed
When was the Lena Goldfields strike?
What was the Lena Goldfields Massacre?
270 miners were killed and almost as many were wounded by tsarist soldiers
What did the land and liberty movement demand?
advocated for a rural revolution to win power for the mass of the peasantry
Did Georgi Plekhanov believe in a peasant led rev?
later became a marxist
Russia by 1912-1914
Unrest was seeping into foundations of Russia
army tried to keep radicals under control but could not suppress all of them
radicals in internal exile spread their ideas abroad
censorship was evaded and illegal newspapers were shared
Nicholas II by 1912-1915
there were still no real threats to his power
relied on the loyalty of the army and police
people still felt respect for the tsar and the traditions of the monarchy
When was Stolypin murdered?
Who was Rasputin and what did he do?
a self professed healer
seemed to calm Nicholas II son
Why did people dislike Rasputin
his lowly poor origins
tsarina always defended him
critical ministers were dismissed bc of him
Why did Russia go to war in 1914?
Russia said it was to protect Serbia, state with fellow slavs NOT to inherit territory
What did Austria believe about Russia joining the war in 1914?
thought Russia was using Serbia to expand their influence in the balkans
What was the state of Russias army during WW1?
After the Russo-Japanese war
Russia's navy and army were enlarged and thoroughly improved
How big was the Russian army compared to the German army?
3 times bby gorl if you made it this far wowie im very very very proud
Railway system by 1914? Benefits?
Expanded with aid from france (alliance in 1894)
transport problems were resolved could transport troops and supplies
Russia's army budget?
budget was 700 mill roubles by 1913
What inefficient weapon did the Russian military rely on?
seemed weak against the other coutnries more modern weapons such as machine guns
horses sued up food and supplies
soldiers relied on this, meant that they were killed before they could even reach the enemy
course of the war 1914
Russia was left to use defensive tactics due to their ongoing failure against germany.
Russia was not trained for these tactics
what battle exemplified Russia's weakness in 1914
Battle of Tannenburg
the victory of the german army showed their advancement in weapons, tactics and speed
quarter of million soldiers were killed
Struggles of soldiers in 1914
short of clothes, food, weapons and ammunition
guns and shells piled up, never reaching the front lines bc of bad transportation
generals did not modify their tactics
How many Russians died in WWI by 1916?
When did Nicholas II go to the front lines in WW1
Why was it a mistake for Nicholas II to go to the front lines
Nicholas was inexperienced
no skill or military training
never inspired/motivated generals and army men
absence in court left a power vacuum
Who was left to rule Russia when Nicholas II went to war
What problems did Tsarina Alexandra encounter
German heritage caused for distrust of people
reliance on Rasputin increased her unpopularity
Struggles of civilians during WW1
railways could not transport food and supplies
farm animals increased while number of deaths of starvation grew
strikes spread in cities such as Moscow, Petrograd
When did Nicholas II abdicate?
2 March 1917
What caused NIcholas II to abdicate
series of army muntatnties
Example of army muntities
1917 conditions at the front were unbearable
soldiers went home afraid their families would die without them
A governor of the Petrograd ordered soldiers to return to their post and proclaimed the martial law
soldiers refused and opened fire
Cossack soldiers turned on tsar
Who was the governor of the Petrograd in 1917
When was Nicholas II executed
Who was the leader of Russia after Nicholas II abdicated
Duma wished for a government led by Prince Lvov but he refused
Lvov was a member of the DUma and a Liberal but had no ideas for reform
provisional government soon took hold
Who was in charge of the provisional government
When was Vladimir Lenin born
what was Vladimir lenins background
bron to a low middle class family
father was a minor gov official
trained to be a lawyer
Why did Lenin become a revolutionary?
his brother was executed after being accused to be part of a group hoping to assassinate Tsar Alexander III
What were Lenin's skills
Ability to be idealistic and practical
willing to compromise
adapation to Marxism
what were lenins beliefs about russia
the importance of organization and discipline within a revolutionary party
value to the working classes to achieve a revolution
peasants could not unite to overcome the tsar
WHo won the deciding vote in social democrats
Lenin (Bolsheviks) by 2 votes
Trotsky (Mensheviks) lost
Why were some people hesitant about the Bolsheviks
feared lenin would become a dictator
What did the Mensheviks do during the 1905 revolution?
Lenin was in exile, could not do much
Who were soviets under Russia's provisional government?
What were the struggles of the provisional government?
struggled to balance demands of reformers and radicals
lacked power and strength to restore order
popular uprising and army protests
soviets were a threat
food distribution was poor
what was the PG (pro government) stance on WW1?
Kerensky decided to continue the war, this would be a grave mistake
Believed this would increase nationalism
Why was the PG for war?
pressured by allies
believed it would unite the Russian people
honor to continue fighting
WHo brought Lenin back to Russia from Switzerland
germans, believed Lenin would cause disorder in Russia
transported in a train
Who did Lenin rely on for a revolution
eventually the Bolsheviks controlled the soviets
WHat slogan did Lenin use
"all power to the soviets"
What was the April Thesis?
Lenin's declaration calling for a second, communist revolution
called for "land peace and bread"
When was the April Thesis?
April 7 1917
What was the reaction the July Days?
PG last attempt to exemplify order and power against the Bolsheviks
Kerensky accused Lenin of being a German agent and spy
PG had enough soldiers to put down disorder
Lenin fled to Finland
What were the 'July days' of 1917
workers/soldiers in Petrograd staged protests against PG
some people were armed
When were the July Days?
3rd-7th July 1917
What was the Kornilov Affair?
Attempted coup against the Provisional Government lead by General Kornilov in August 1917
marched soldiers in the savage divison into the Petrograd
credit went to the Bolsheviks
Who was in charge of the Kornilov affair
commander in chief of the army, Lavr Kornilov
supported the Bolsheviks
Result of Kornilov affair
Kerensky accused Kornilov of attempting to establish a military dictator
soldiers refused to listen to PG and many deserted
Kerensky was then seen as a German agent, willing to give Moscow to the Germans
Who took over the government after the PG
Military Revolutionary Council
controlled by Bolsheviks
When was the Kornilov Affair?
26th-30th August 1917
WHat caused the October Rev of 1917
PG lacked control
Military rev council established in Moscow, rival gov
RUssian army suffered losses in war made PG unpopular
Kerensky could not give reforms
How did the Bolsheviks take power in Russia?
The Bolsheviks took advantage of the political and social situation in 1917 to seize power during the Russian Revolution.
gained control of Petrograd and WInter Palace
How did Bolsheviks take over the Petrograd
Kerensky could not protect key cities from germans
rumors spread he would flee to give Russia to the germans
how many people died in the October revolution
What was the October revolution of 1917
Lenin gained the winter palace and Petrograd
Bolsheviks claimed this was a rev of the people
over in a few hrs