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Leadership Exam 2
Terms in this set (156)
What is something that occurs when real or perceived differences exist in goals, ideas, attitudes, beliefs, feelings, or actions between 2 or more parties?
What are the types of conflict?
What is a perceived condition that exists between parties in which 1 or more parties perceive a goal incompatibility and an opportunity to interfere with goal accomplishment of the other?
What are the 5 stages of conflict?
What is when there is a difference or conflict between the organization or staff (ex: when management brings about changes without consulting staff)?
What stage is when an antecedent conditions exist whose most common antecedent condition is incompatible goals?
What stage refers to each part's perception of the other's position that often involves issues and roles?
What stage is when conflict is emotionalized?
What stage is when action is taken for conflict and involves debates and confrontations?
What stage is when there is conflict after the conflict?
What are positive aspects of conflict?
provides intellectual stimulation
fosters problem solving
facilitates personal maturation
What are negative aspects of conflict?
conflict being suppressed
leads to aggressive behavior
costs time and money
disturbs cost benefit ratio (increases cost rate because of increased turnover)
can contribute to poor patient quality care and patient dissatisfaction leading to decreased reimbursement.
What are the effective methods of conflict management?
Negotiation: create a win-win situation. ask open-ended questions
Collaboration: all parties set aside goals and work together on a priority common goal
Compromise: each party gives up something they want
Confrontation: face to face communication
What is the rule negotiators need to follow?
listen 70% of the time
talk 30% of the time
What are the less effective methods of conflict management?
Smoothing: pacify the other party; focus on agreements rather than differences
Competing: going to win at all costs
What are alternative dispute resolution techniques?
Mediation: neutral third party to help bring parties together
Fact finding: know facts to make best decisions
Arbitration: 3rd party comes in to hear all facts then makes a decision
Ombudspersons: helping individuals understand their rights
What are the difficult personality types?
What is a personality that explode; abrupt, intimidating, domineering, arrogant, prone to making personal attacks, extremely aggressive approach, act like an adult having a temper tantrum, don't mind making a scene in a public place?
What personality is passive aggressive behavior; like to take pot shots, like to sabotage leaders, mean-spirited?
What personality is whiney, finds fault in every situation, accuses and blames others, never want to bring any solutions to the table?
What personality is shut down; unresponsive, closing down when trying to have a conversation, does not participate as a team member, avoids answering direct questions?
What is the authority and ability to get things accomplished and enables one to accomplish goals?
What does power do?
The potential of an individual or group to influence the behavior of others.
Having power gives one the potential to change the attitudes and behaviors of individual people and groups.
Our first experience with power usually occurs in the family unit.
What are the types of power?
Coercive or punishment Power
Legitimate or position Power
Referent or personal Power
What type of power is gained through knowledge, expertise, or experience and is limited to a specialized area?
Expert or knowledge
What type of power is likeable and a person has because others identify with that leader or with what that leader symbolizes; when one gives another person feelings of personal acceptance or approval?
Referent or personal power
What type of power is position and title; it is the power gained by a title or official position within an organization?
Legitimate or position power
What type of power is the opposite of reward power; based on the fear of punishment if the manager's expectations are not met; the manager may obtain compliance through threat?
Coercive or punishment
What type of power is giving something to get that something back, and is obtained by the ability to grant favors or reward others with whatever they value?
What are emerging theories of power?
people that can inspire other people; distinguished by some from referent power.
having information that others need; when people have info that others must have to accomplish their goas.
power that we have through maturity within our own being
What is the right to command and is a source of legitimate power?
What can a narrow authority power gap lead to?
What can a widened authority power gap lead to?
What must be seen from the manager for the authority-power gap not to widen?
What is the masculine model of power?
o Operating style: competitive
o Organizational structure: hierarchy
o Basic objective: winning
o Problem solving: rational
o Key characteristics: high control, strategic, unemotional, analytical
What is the feminine model of power?
o Operating style: cooperative
o Organizational structure: team
o Basic objective: quality output
o Problem solving: intuitive/rational
o Key characteristics: lower control, collaborative, empathetic, high performance standards
What is the art of using legitimate power effectively?
What is the key to success with politics?
how you rebound from errors
What is the formula for a good leader?
honesty + confidence + inspiration + vision = credibility
What is empowerment a hallmark sign of?
What does empower mean?
develop, enable, and allow
What is when nurses eat their young?
queen bee syndrome
What are the keys to optimizing time management?
prioritizing duties, managing and controlling crises, reducing stress, and balancing work and personal time
What are the 3 steps of time management?
• Time is allowed for planning and establishing priorities.
• Completing the highest priority tasks before beginning another.
•Reprioritize based on new information.
What are the task levels for time management planning?
• A: had to be done
• B: need to be done
• C: can or cant be done
What is the most critical skill in good time management?
What is the don't do category?
• Problems that will take care of themselves
• Better done by someone else
• Items are outdated.
• Get clutter from your desk
What is the do later category?
• Can be procrastinated
• Trivial problems
• Ones that do not have an immediate deadline
What are 3 common reasons for procrastination?
• Not wanting to begin
• Not knowing where to begin
• Not knowing where to begin, even if you wanted to begin, which you don't
What is in the do now category?
• These usually reflect the day to day operations of the unit.
• Dealing with equipment shortages
• Hiring/firing employees
• Performance appraisals
• Making a list of goals or things that have to be done everyday
What is an essential part of the manager's job or they can be a time waster?
Who usually experiences the most interruptions?
What is when there is an interruption that is more important and urgent than the activity in which the manager is involved?
What are external time wasters?
- Lack of Information
- Poor communication
- Lack of feedback
- Lack of adequately described policies & procedures
- Incompetent workers
- Poor filing system
- Paperwork & reading
When should calls be placed?
prior to lunchtime, at the end of the day and on Friday afternoon tend to result in more business and less socializing
What are internal time wasters?
- Poor planning
- Failure to establish goals & objectives
- Failure to set objectives
- Inability to delegate
- Inability to say "no"
- Management by crisis
- Open-door policy:
What is a leadership skill in personal time management?
What is doing one task at a time?
What is 1or more tasks going at the same time?
What is a time inventory used for?
to be self-aware when you are most productive
schedule more complex tasks during the time you are most productive
managing time appropriately reduces stress and increases productivity.
What does all planning include?
What is a proactive, deliberate process required by all managers?
What is the first thing we look at when planning?
How often is a plan usually reviewed?
Why do plans fail?
Not knowing overall goal
Not enough alternatives
Inadequate time or other resources
Low motivation levels
Sound strategies not used
Inadequate delegation of authority
Not recognizing organizational goals and needs
Planning too narrow in scope — not recognizing community, legal, and licensing requirements
What are the primary planning modes?
What occurs after a problem exists because there is a dissatisfaction with the current situation, planning efforts are directed at returning the organization to a previous, more comfortable state and can lead to hasty decisions and mistakes?
What is the planning mode that seek the status quo, and they spend their energy preventing change and maintaining conformity, and when changes do occur, they occur slowly and incrementally?
What planning mode utilizes technology to accelerate change and future oriented and is unsatisfied with the past or present, and they do not value experience and believe that the future is always preferable to the present?
What is the planning mode that considers the past, present, and future and attempt to plan the future of their organization rather than react to it?
what is the key requirement for proactive planning?
What is a SWOT analysis?
internal attributes that help an organization to achieve its objectives
internal attributes that challenge an organization to achieve its objectives
external conditions that promote achievement of organizational objectives
external conditions that challenge or threaten achievement of organizational objectives
What looks at the organization and when a strategy is used to change something, then what is being change has to be evaluated and determine if it will impact another part of the organization?
What do strategic planners use a balanced scorecard for?
develop metrics (performance measurement indicators)
analyze that data from four organizational perspectives: financial, customers, internal business processes (or simply processes), learning and growth.
What reflects the core values of the institution?
What are more specific and measurable than goals because they identify how and when the goal is to be accomplished and motivate people to a specific end and are explicit, measurable, observable or retrievable, and obtainable?
What is a written statement that tells the requirements of an organization?
What are implied policies?
neither written nor expressed verbally, have usually developed over time and follow a precedent
What are expressed policies?
delineated verbally or in writing.
What are characteristics of a true value?
Freely chosen from among alternatives
Prized and cherished
Consciously and consistently repeated (part of a pattern)
Positively affirmed and acted upon
What are the 3 major drivers of change in contemporary health care?
What are 3 good reasons for change?
1. To solve some problem
2. To make procedures more efficient
3. To reduce unnecessary workload
What is a natural social process that makes something different from what it was?
What is a well-thought out and deliberate effort to make something happen?
What is a person skilled in the theory and implementation of planned change - to deal appropriately with conflicted human emotions and to connect and balance all aspects of the organization that will be affected by that change?
What are the characteristics of a change agent?
• Deals with human emotions effectively
• Desire to "make a difference"
• Deals with areas of weakness
• High achiever
• Good planning skills
• Moves people thru the change process
What are the 3 phases of planned change?
What is unfreezing?
there is a
and we have to unthaw it (we have to deal with it).
Occurs when the change agent convinces members of the group to change or when guilt, anxiety, or concern can be elicited.
Thus, people can become discontented and aware of a need to change.
What is Movement?
staff will experience a change. All of the advantages and disadvantages are lined out. it is implemented. MAKE CHANGES
What is refreezing?
comes about when the staff incorporate the change into their behavior. Rewards may be given or punishment.
The change agent assists in stabilizing the system change so that it becomes integrated into the status quo
What rules did Lewin identify that should be followed when implementing change?
1. Change should be implemented only for good reason.
2. Change should always be gradual.
3. All change should be planned, not sporadic or sudden.
4. All individuals whom the change may affect should be involved in planning for it.
What are the Ten Emotional Phases of the Change Process?
equilibrium, denial, anger, bargaining, chaos, depression, resignation, openness, readiness, re-emergence
What are forces that facilitate and advance a system toward change?
opportunity for advancement, status, enhanced self-esteem, family supportive of efforts, pay increase
What are forces that are barriers and impede change?
: low energy level, limited financial resources, unreliable transportation, time with family already limited
What are the change agent strategies?
What is the rational-empirical strategy?
the power ingredient is
Rational human beings will follow their own self-interest.
It uses knowledge as the power base. Making rational decisions.
What is the Normative-Reeducative strategy?
skill and personal relationships
is the main ingredient here. Peer pressure is often used to effect change.
These strategies use group norms and peer pressure to socialize and influence people so that change will occur
What is the power-coercive strategy?
power, authority, and control
are the ingredients for this.
Features the application of power by legitimate authority, economic sanctions, or political clout of the change agent.
Using authority inherent in an individual position to effect change.
What is the natural and respected response to change because of the disruption of homeostasis?
What should leaders do when implementing change?
immerse themselves in identifying and implementing strategies to minimize or manage resistance to change
to encourage subordinates to speak openly so that options can be identified to overcome objections
assess which workers will promote change or resist a specific change, by both observation and direct communication
collaborate with change promoters on how best to convert those individuals more resistant to change.
What does the degree of resistance for each individual depend on?
1. Flexibility to change
2. Evaluation of the immediate situation
3. Anticipated consequences of the change
4. Perceptions of what he or she has to lose and gain
How do we manage resistance?
educate vision and rationale behind change.
involve people most directly influenced by change.
support on the job & mentor
co-opting: seek out key people
What are the 6 behavioral patterns commonly seen in response to change?
(will go with the change)
like status quo but don't like to be left behind
skeptical of the change and don't mind expressing their negative views; usually resistant but will accept the change after everyone has accepted it.
are last to adopt the change; dedicated to tradition and stability and very suspicious of the change.
openly oppose the change.
What are new organizations known for?
always trying to renew and be on the cutting edge. High energy, movement, and virtually constant change and adaptation are characteristics.
What are old organizations known for?
sometimes get involved in turf boundaries; function in an orderly and predictable fashion, and are focused on rules and regulations. Change is limited.
Who did the chaos theory?
Who did the learning organization theory?
What is when the organizations can no longer rely on rules, policies, and hierarchies to get work accomplished in inflexible ways and suggests that even small changes in conditions can drastically alter a system's long-term behavior (commonly known as the butterfly effect)?
What is the theory that organizations need to view the world as a set of multiple visible & invisible parts that interact constantly?
Learning organization theory
What suggests that the relationship between elements and agents within any system is nonlinear and that these elements are constantly in play to change the environment or outcome; we are a complex society and we deal with relationships, interactions, and all, and it suggests that future behavior may not always be the same because that individual's prior experience and past learning may change his or her future choices?
Complex Adaptive System (CAS)
What are the two major constraints affecting directing?
collective bargaining and legislation
What is one of the main reasons nurses join a union?
What is the mutual coming together of the employee and employers to discuss concerns that the employees have?
Ex: often wages, paid time off, benefits, etc
What is the role of the manager with collective bargaining?
first and middle-level managers usually have little to do with negotiating the labor contract, however they are greatly involved with the contract's daily implementation.
Middle manager has the greatest impact on the quality of the relationship that develops between labor and management.
What is when all employees are required to join the union and pay dues?
What is when employees are not required to join the union?
What does the national labor relations board do?
Determine who should be the official bargaining unit when a new unit is formed and who should be in the unit
Adjudicate unfair labor charges
What is an organization formed by wage earners to maintain or improve their terms and conditions of work by bargaining with employers?
What can unions bargain for?
wages, hours, and working conditions
What does union membership and activity do during high employment and prosperity and during economic recessions and layoffs?
increase during high employment
decrease during economic recessions and layoffs
What correlates with increased union activity?
high demand for nurses
What are regulations dealing with the conditions of the employee's work, including physical conditions, financial aspects, and the number of hours worked?
What gave unions many rights in organizing and resulted in rapid union growth?
1935 National Labor Act/Wagner Act
What returned some power to management, meaning more balance between unions and management?
1947 Taft-Hartley Amendment
What amended Wagner Act to allow public employees to join unions. order lifted restrictions preventing public employees from organizing and this opened the door to initial collective bargaining in the nursing profession?
1962 Kennedy Executive Order 10988
What allowed nonprofit organizations to join unions?
1974 Amendments to Wagner Act
What is the largest union in the healthcare industry?
The Service Employees International Union (SEIU)
What are primary motivations for joining a union?
• Increased power of the individual.
• The desire to have input into organizational decision making. Give nurses a voice.
• The desire to eliminate discrimination and favoritism.
• A societal need to be accepted.
• Condition of employment.
• Economic reward. Salaries and wages being higher
What are reasons that nurses reject unions?
• Societal and cultural factors.
• Need to get ahead on own merits.
• Need to demonstrate individualism and social status.
• Values align with management rather than workers.
• Need to keep their jobs.
• Striking vs. patient care issues.
Who cannot belong to the union?
•Supervisors are ineligible.
•OLD definition — A supervisor is anyone who hires, fires, disciplines, transfers, or promotes
•NEW definition - any nurse who directs less-skilled employees as part of his or her duties (5/23/94)
What does it mean when an outsider comes in to organize the union?
salting the bargaining unit
What needs to be done before the union comes?
• Knowledge and care of employees.
• Personnel policies that are fair and communicated.
• Up and down talk.
• Well-trained managers.
• Procedure for grievances.
• Competitive wages/benefits.
• Performance appraisals.
• Promotions and transfers.
• Job security = job performance.
• Policy on unionization.
What are regulations dealing with the conditions of the employees' work: including physical conditions, financial aspects, and the amount of hours worked (minimum wage and maximum hours)?
What laid the foundation for equal employment in the US and prohibits discrimination based on factors unrelated to job qualifications and it promotes employment based on ability and merit?
Civil Rights Act, 1964
What promotes the employment of older people based on their ability rather than age?
Age Discrimination and Employment Act, 1967
What rules that a supervisor's verbal and physical advances constituted sexual harassment in the workplace?
Sexual harassment, 1977
What said that companies that deal with the federal government have to hire those with disabilities that are qualified and required all employers with government contracts of more than 25,000$ to take affirmative action to recruit, hire, and advance disabled people who are qualified?
Rehabilitation Act, 1973
What made it to where men and women performing equal work receive equal compensation?
Equal pay act of 1963
What are the 4 equal pay tests?
equal skill, equal effort, equal responsibility and similar working conditions
What eliminates discrimination against those with physical or mental disabilities?
Americans with disabilities act (1990)
What came in to play after the wars and stated reemployment after war was required?
Veterans readjustment assistance act.
What is the force within the individual that influences or directs behavior and comes from within the person; "to move"?
What are the 2 types of motivation?
What is intrinsic motivation?
• Job performance or productivity
• Most powerful source of motivation
• parents and peers often play major roles.
• often impacted by others
What is extrinsic motivation?
• Application of rewards or punishments (motivation that is enhanced by the work environment)
• Extrinsic motivation is motivation enhanced by the job environment or external rewards
What is Maslow's theory?
believed that people are motivated to satisfy certain needs, ranging from basic survival to complex psychological needs, and that people seek a higher need only when the lower needs have predominately met.
• Hierachy of needs
• Pyramid of needs
• Meet the basic ones first then move up the pyramid.
What is Skinner's Theory?
Demonstrated that people could be conditioned in a way based on a consistent reward or punishment system.
Behavior that is rewarded will be repeated, and behavior that is punished or goes unrewarded is unextinguished.
Behavior modification: verbal warning, write up, pay cut.
Can be used today with a reward/punishment system
What is Herzberg's theory?
•Believes that employees are motivated by work itself and that there is an internal or personal need to meet organizational goals. He maintained that motivators or job satisfiers present in work itself; they give people the desire to work and to do that work well
• 2 factor theory
What is Vroom's theory?
looks at motivation in terms of the person's valence or preferences based on social values, and people make conscious decisions in anticipation of reward
What is the expectancy model by Vroom?
says that a person's expectations about his or her environment or a certain event will influence behavior. In other words, people look at all actions as having a cause and effect; the effect may be immediate or delayed, but a reward inherent in the behavior exists to motivate risk taking.
What is McCelland's thoery?
• People are motivated by 3 basic needs that motivate:
What is Gellerman's theory?
strecthing" employees: involves assigning tasks that are more difficult than what the person is used to doing. Employees must be challenged to stretch their personal and professional limits.
•Giving them more difficult tasks than they are used to doing
What is McGregor's plan?
Examine the importance of a manager's assumptions about workers on the intrinsic motivation of the workers. These assumptions, which McGregor labeled theory X and Theory Y led to the realization in management science that how the manager views, and thus treats, the worker will have an impact on how well the organization functions.
What are theory x employees like?
avoid work if possible, dislike work, must be directed, have little ambition, avoid responsibility, need threats to be motivated, need close supervision, are motivated by rewards and punishment
What are theory y employees like?
like and enjoy work, are self-directed, seek responsibility, are imaginative and creative, have underutilized intellectual compacity, need only general supervision, are encouraged to participate in problem solving.
How do we create a motivating climate?
• Positive reinforcement
• Positive & enthusiastic role model
• Be an encouraging manager.
• Take care of yourself
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