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Chemistry Ch 7 Test Review 1
Terms in this set (66)
The number of these largely determines that chemical properties of an element. They are usually the only electrons involved in chemical bonds.
The electrons in the highest occupied energy level of an element's atom.
electron dot structures
also called the Lewis Dot Structure; they are diagrams that show valence electrons in the atoms of an element as dots
it states that in forming compounds, atoms tend to achieve the electron configuration of a noble gas
the ions produced when atoms of chlorine and other halogens gain electrons
the all have 7 valence electronS
the electrostatic forces that hold ions together in ionic compounds
They are electrically neutral and composed of cations and anions.
They can conduct an electric current when melted or dissolved in water.
Generally have high melting points and are crystalline at room temperature
it shows the numbers of atoms of each element in the smallest representative unit of a substance
the lowest whole-muber ration of ions in an ionic compound
the number of ions of oppoiste charge that surround the ion in a crystal
these are non reactive in chemical reactions
the forces of attraction between the free-floating valence electrons and positively charged metal ions
formed when an atom loses one or more valence electrons and becomes a positively charged ion
they are formed when an atom gains electrons to become negatively charged ions
They are mixtures of two or more elements, at least one being a metal; ex: copper and zinc
They are important because their properties are often superior to those of their compound elements
Have corrosion resistance, ductility, hardness, and toughness. most important alloy today.
An alloy of iron with about 1 percent carbon. It may also contain other elements, such as manganese. Whereas pure iron is a relatively soft metal that rusts easily, steel can be hard, tough, and corrosion-resistant
properties of metal
ductile, malleable, conduct electric current well, crystalline structure, high melting points
pseudo noble-gas configuration
the electron configuration that has 18 electrons in the outer energy and all of the orbitals filled
Body-centered cubic, face-centered cubic, hexagonal close packed
anions and cations have opposite charges and attract eachother by the means of _______________
atoms of ________ tend to lose their electrons
atoms of __________ tend to gain electrons or share with another nonmetal to get to the octet
it is easier to _____ electrons than to lose them
ionic compounds are electrically ___________
chemists represent the composition of substances by writing _________ __________
when a ionic compound is melted and dissolved in water, the ________ structure breaks down
when a crystal structure is broken down, __________ migrate freely to one electrode and _______ migrate to the other
when dissovled in water, ions of ionic ompounds can move __________ around the solution
True or False? The group of a representative element in the periodic table is related to the number of valence electrons it has.
lose, gaining, sharing
Metallic atoms tend to _______ valence electrons to produce a positively charged ion. Most nonmetallic atoms achieve a complete octet by ____________ or __________ electrons.
1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 3d10, 4s2
Write the electron configuration for zinc.
Atoms of most nonmetallic elements achieve noble-gas electron configuration by gaining electrons to become __________.
They have relatively full valence shells.
What property of nonmetallic elements makes them more likely to gain electrons than lose electrons?
False, they gain one.
True or False? Elements of the halogen family lose one electron to become halide ions.
3, 2, 2, 1
How many electrons will each element gain in forming an ion?
cations, anions, neutral
In an ionic compound, the charges of the __________ and __________ must balance to produce an electrically ___________ substance.
Each beryllium atom gives up 2 e-, but each fluorine atom only accepts 1 e-. Therefore, 2 fluorine atoms are needed to react with each beryllium atom.
Why do beryllium and fluorine combine in a 1:2 ratio?
2 atoms of iron, 3 atoms of oxygen
List the number and types of atoms represented by Fe2, O3
1 atom of potassium, 1 atom of manganese, 4 atoms of oxygen
List the number and types of atoms represented by KMnO4
There must be twice as many Cl ions (Cl-) to balance the magnesium ions (Mg2+) to form an electrically neutral compound.
Explain why the ratio of magnesium ions to chloride ions in MgCl2 is 1:2.
Exist as collections of cations and anions arranged in repeating three-dimensional patterns
Describe the structure of ionic compounds.
Most ionic compounds are this at room temperature.
True or false? Ionic compounds generally have low melting points.
What is the coordination number of the ions in a crystal of NaCl?
What is the electrical charge of an ionic compound?
Most ionic compounds are crystalline solids at room temperature, they generally have high melting points, and they can conduct an electric current when melted or dissolved in water.
What are three properties of ionic compounds?
Electrons can flow freely in the metal.
Why are metals good conductors?
The sea of electrons enables the cations to move past each other when pressure is applied.
Why are metals ductile?
The sea of electrons enables the cations to be pushed closer together when hit.
Why are metals malleable.
true or false? Metals are made up of cations and valence electrons, not neutral atoms
electrical conductivity, ductility, malleability
Name three properties of metals that can be explained by metallic bonding
The force tends to push ions of like charge into contact. They repel each other, and the crystal shatters.
What happens to an ionic crystal when a force is applied to it?
Metal atoms in crystals are arranged into very ___________ and_______ patterns.
hexagonal close packed
face centered cubic
copper and aluminum
Chose each metal whose atoms form a face-centered cubic pattern.
-magnesium, copper, sodium, aluminum
true or false? Pure metals are usually harder and more durable than alloys.
The most common use of nonferrous alloys is in...
corrosion resistance, ductility, hardness, toughness
What four properties make steel an important alloy?
silver and copper
What are the component elements for sterling silver?
copper and zinc
What are the component elements for brass?
iron, chromium, nickel, and carbon
What are the component elements for stainless steel?
iron and carbon
What are the component elements for cast iron?
have smaller atoms that fit into the spaces between larger atoms
have component atoms that are roughly equal in size
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