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Asexual Reproduction

-reproduction of exact copies via cell division
-does not require genetic input from 2 parents
-offspring identical to parent cell

Sexual Reproduction

-reproduction that requires genetic input from 2 parents

Sister Chromatids

-copied chromosome
-each one is composed of one DNA molecule


-middle of a replicated chromosome

DNA Replication

-double-stranded DNA molecule is copied
-occurs during interphase "S" phase
-new nucleotides added resulting in 2 daughter DNA molecules
-1/2 parental DNA and 1/2 new daughter DNA

Growth Factors

-G1 checkpoint (cell necessary to divide?)
-survey cell environment for presence of proteins
-"increases cell division"

Limited Growth Factors

-cell division doesn't occur

Growth Factors Present

-proteins check if cell is big enough to divide


-genes become mutated "after"
-causes cancer


-genes encode proteins regulating cell cycle
-enable organisms to regulate division "before"

Tumor Suppressors

-genes involved with cancer
-carry instructions for producing proteins that suppress or stop cell division if condition unfavorable
-proteins detect and repair damage to DNA

Contact Inhibition

-prevents cell from dividing when doing so would require them to pile up on each other
-cancer cells continue to divide

Anchorage Dependence

-normal cells need contact with underlayer of cells to stay in place
-if this is lost, cell may leave original tumor and move to blood, lymph, or tissues


-describes process of cancer development
-multiple mutations required for development and progression of cancer


-chemicals injected into blood killing dividing cells

Radiation Therapy

-uses high energy particles to injure or destroy cells by damaging DNA making it impossible for cells to continue growing and dividing
-applied directly to tumor when possible


-form of cell division that only occurs in sex organs
-produces cells that contain one chromosome for every pair
-sexual reproduction and produces 4 daughter cells genetically different


-specialized sex cells produced during meiosis
-contain 1/2 the number of chromosomes as somatic cells


-only one member of each homologous pair present in a cell (egg and sperm cells)


-after sperm and egg cell fuse, fertilized cell (zygote) contains 2 sets of chromosomes

Crossing Over

-involves exchange of proportions of chromosomes from one member of homologous pair to the other

Random Alignment

-increases number of genetically distinct types of gametes that can be produced of homologous pairs


-result of too many/ too few chromosomes when failure of homologues (sister chromatids) separate during meiosis


-intercellular space binding keeps cell in correct area
-signals are continually sent to nucleus


-if cell doesn't receive message it will "self-destruct"


-nutrients available for growth due to new blood vessels growing towards cells
-very large tumors

Cell Death

-"cellular clock" determines how long cell will live


-protective caps on chromosomes that wear down during cell division
-cell dies soon after cap wears off


-failure of genetic controls (due to mutations)
--cells keep dividing (oncogenes/malfunctioning tumor suppressor genes)
--produces tumore (lost contact inhibition/ angiogenesis/ telomerase produced)
--cells metastasize (no anchorage dependence)

Cell Cycle (Interphase)

-DNA replicates

Cell Cycle (Mitosis)

-copied chromosomes move into daughter nuclei

Cell Cycle (Cytokinesis)

-cytoplasm of parent cell splits


-2 cells genetically identical to original cell
-part of cell cycle
-asexual reproduction
-produces 2 daughter cells

Benign Tumors

-grow more slowly
-not "intertwined" with near by tissues


-enzyme that maintains and rebuilds telomeres

Meiosis I

-homologous pairs randomly align
-one way of creating genetic variation in gametes (offspring)

Meiosis II

-sister chromatids split
-4 haploid cells are formed
-cells genetically different (same number of chromosomes and genes but alleles on chromosome may differ)


-version of a gene

Cri Du Chat

-chromosome 5 (one short/ one long arm)
-central nervous system impairment
-malformed larynx (speech issues)

Down's Syndrome

-trisomy 21
-3 "21" chromosomes

Patau's Syndrome

-trisomy 13
-3 "13" chromosomes
-cleft lip and palate

Klinefelter's Syndrome

-extra sex chromosome
-men are more female-like

Turner's Syndrom (Monosomy X)

-smaller stature, lack of menstrual cycle
-webbed neck
missing sex chromosome


-all chromosomes except for x and y

Sex Chromosomes

-x and y chromosomes in organisms

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