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45 terms

Chapter 16- Cell Cycle & Cancer Goals

STUDY
PLAY
Asexual Reproduction
-reproduction of exact copies via cell division
-does not require genetic input from 2 parents
-offspring identical to parent cell
Sexual Reproduction
-reproduction that requires genetic input from 2 parents
Sister Chromatids
-copied chromosome
-each one is composed of one DNA molecule
Centromere
-middle of a replicated chromosome
DNA Replication
-double-stranded DNA molecule is copied
-occurs during interphase "S" phase
-new nucleotides added resulting in 2 daughter DNA molecules
-1/2 parental DNA and 1/2 new daughter DNA
Growth Factors
-G1 checkpoint (cell necessary to divide?)
-survey cell environment for presence of proteins
-"increases cell division"
Limited Growth Factors
-cell division doesn't occur
Growth Factors Present
-proteins check if cell is big enough to divide
Oncogenes
-genes become mutated "after"
-causes cancer
Proto-Oncogenes
-genes encode proteins regulating cell cycle
-enable organisms to regulate division "before"
Tumor Suppressors
-genes involved with cancer
-carry instructions for producing proteins that suppress or stop cell division if condition unfavorable
-proteins detect and repair damage to DNA
Contact Inhibition
-prevents cell from dividing when doing so would require them to pile up on each other
-cancer cells continue to divide
Anchorage Dependence
-normal cells need contact with underlayer of cells to stay in place
-if this is lost, cell may leave original tumor and move to blood, lymph, or tissues
Multiple-Hit-Model
-describes process of cancer development
-multiple mutations required for development and progression of cancer
Chemotherapy
-chemicals injected into blood killing dividing cells
Radiation Therapy
-uses high energy particles to injure or destroy cells by damaging DNA making it impossible for cells to continue growing and dividing
-applied directly to tumor when possible
Meiosis
-form of cell division that only occurs in sex organs
-produces cells that contain one chromosome for every pair
-sexual reproduction and produces 4 daughter cells genetically different
Gamates
-specialized sex cells produced during meiosis
-contain 1/2 the number of chromosomes as somatic cells
Haploid
-only one member of each homologous pair present in a cell (egg and sperm cells)
Diploid
-after sperm and egg cell fuse, fertilized cell (zygote) contains 2 sets of chromosomes
Crossing Over
-involves exchange of proportions of chromosomes from one member of homologous pair to the other
Random Alignment
-increases number of genetically distinct types of gametes that can be produced of homologous pairs
Nondisjunction
-result of too many/ too few chromosomes when failure of homologues (sister chromatids) separate during meiosis
Metastasis
-intercellular space binding keeps cell in correct area
-signals are continually sent to nucleus
Apotosis
-if cell doesn't receive message it will "self-destruct"
Angiogenesis
-nutrients available for growth due to new blood vessels growing towards cells
-very large tumors
Cell Death
-Immortality
-"cellular clock" determines how long cell will live
Telomeres
-protective caps on chromosomes that wear down during cell division
-cell dies soon after cap wears off
Carcinogenesis
-failure of genetic controls (due to mutations)
--cells keep dividing (oncogenes/malfunctioning tumor suppressor genes)
--produces tumore (lost contact inhibition/ angiogenesis/ telomerase produced)
--cells metastasize (no anchorage dependence)
Cell Cycle (Interphase)
-DNA replicates
Cell Cycle (Mitosis)
-copied chromosomes move into daughter nuclei
Cell Cycle (Cytokinesis)
-cytoplasm of parent cell splits
Mitosis
-2 cells genetically identical to original cell
-part of cell cycle
-asexual reproduction
-produces 2 daughter cells
Benign Tumors
-encapsulated
-grow more slowly
-not "intertwined" with near by tissues
Telomerase
-enzyme that maintains and rebuilds telomeres
Meiosis I
-homologous pairs randomly align
-one way of creating genetic variation in gametes (offspring)
Meiosis II
-sister chromatids split
-4 haploid cells are formed
-cells genetically different (same number of chromosomes and genes but alleles on chromosome may differ)
Alleles
-version of a gene
Cri Du Chat
-chromosome 5 (one short/ one long arm)
-central nervous system impairment
-malformed larynx (speech issues)
Down's Syndrome
-trisomy 21
-3 "21" chromosomes
Patau's Syndrome
-trisomy 13
-3 "13" chromosomes
-cleft lip and palate
Klinefelter's Syndrome
-XXY
-extra sex chromosome
-men are more female-like
Turner's Syndrom (Monosomy X)
-smaller stature, lack of menstrual cycle
-webbed neck
missing sex chromosome
Autosomes
-all chromosomes except for x and y
Sex Chromosomes
-x and y chromosomes in organisms