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-reproduction of exact copies via cell division
-does not require genetic input from 2 parents
-offspring identical to parent cell
-double-stranded DNA molecule is copied
-occurs during interphase "S" phase
-new nucleotides added resulting in 2 daughter DNA molecules
-1/2 parental DNA and 1/2 new daughter DNA
-G1 checkpoint (cell necessary to divide?)
-survey cell environment for presence of proteins
-"increases cell division"
-genes encode proteins regulating cell cycle
-enable organisms to regulate division "before"
-genes involved with cancer
-carry instructions for producing proteins that suppress or stop cell division if condition unfavorable
-proteins detect and repair damage to DNA
-prevents cell from dividing when doing so would require them to pile up on each other
-cancer cells continue to divide
-normal cells need contact with underlayer of cells to stay in place
-if this is lost, cell may leave original tumor and move to blood, lymph, or tissues
-describes process of cancer development
-multiple mutations required for development and progression of cancer
-uses high energy particles to injure or destroy cells by damaging DNA making it impossible for cells to continue growing and dividing
-applied directly to tumor when possible
-form of cell division that only occurs in sex organs
-produces cells that contain one chromosome for every pair
-sexual reproduction and produces 4 daughter cells genetically different
-specialized sex cells produced during meiosis
-contain 1/2 the number of chromosomes as somatic cells
-involves exchange of proportions of chromosomes from one member of homologous pair to the other
-increases number of genetically distinct types of gametes that can be produced of homologous pairs
-result of too many/ too few chromosomes when failure of homologues (sister chromatids) separate during meiosis
-intercellular space binding keeps cell in correct area
-signals are continually sent to nucleus
-nutrients available for growth due to new blood vessels growing towards cells
-very large tumors
-protective caps on chromosomes that wear down during cell division
-cell dies soon after cap wears off
-failure of genetic controls (due to mutations)
--cells keep dividing (oncogenes/malfunctioning tumor suppressor genes)
--produces tumore (lost contact inhibition/ angiogenesis/ telomerase produced)
--cells metastasize (no anchorage dependence)
-2 cells genetically identical to original cell
-part of cell cycle
-produces 2 daughter cells
-homologous pairs randomly align
-one way of creating genetic variation in gametes (offspring)
-sister chromatids split
-4 haploid cells are formed
-cells genetically different (same number of chromosomes and genes but alleles on chromosome may differ)
Cri Du Chat
-chromosome 5 (one short/ one long arm)
-central nervous system impairment
-malformed larynx (speech issues)
Turner's Syndrom (Monosomy X)
-smaller stature, lack of menstrual cycle
missing sex chromosome
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