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Final Exams

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Knossos
central city of Minoan civilization
Homer
the Iliad and the Odyssey
acropolis
fortified place and religious center
agora
open area used as a market and meeting place
Cleisthenes
brought democracy to athens
Mount Olympus
home of the greek gods
Socrates
believed "the unexamined life is not worth living"
Thucydides
the greatest historian of the ancient world
Aristarchus of Samos
astronomer in the Hellenistic Age
Stoicism
taught by Zeno
Estrucans
launched a building program that turned Rome into a city
plebians
less wealthy landholders, craftspeople, merchants, and small farmers.
triumvirate
a government by three people with equal power
Antony and Cleopatra
comitted suicide after being defeated by Octavian
paterfamilias
head of the Roman family
insulae
apartment blocks
Sadducees
favored cooperation with the Romans
Theodosius the Great
made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire
Vandals
German tribe that sacked Rome
Romulus Augustulus
deposed by Germanic head of the army, marking the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Bedouins
nomadic Arabs who lived in the desert rather than in towns
Hijrah
journey of Muhammad and his followers to Madinah
jihad
"struggle in the way of God"
caliph
chief Islamic religious authority
sultan
"holder of power"
Ibn Sina
wrote a medical encyclopedia that stressed contagious nature of diseases
Ibn-Rushd
Muslim philosopher
muezzin
Muslim crier who calls the faithful to prayer five times a day
minaret
most famous section of the Great Mosque of Samarra
Ibn-Khaldun
Muslim historian who wrote Muqaddima (Introduction to History)
wergild
amount of money paid by a criminal to the family of the person he had killed or injured
Gregory I
strengthened the power of the papacy
count
German noble who acted as the king's representative in a certain local area
Magyars
people from western Asia who settled on the plains of Hungary
vassalage
the heart of feudalism
fief
the grant of land made to a vassal
Doomsday Book
first census since Roman times
Phillip IV
created the first French parliament
Justinian
codified Roman law, resulting in The Body of Civil Law
Richard the Lionhearted
negotiated a settlement with Saladin to allow Christians access to Jerusalem
Ptolemaic system
Earth at the center of a series of concetric spheres
Galileo Galilei
first European to study stars using a telescope
philosophers
the intellectuals of the Enlightment
Rene Descartes
developed a philosophy based on the idea" I think, therefore I am"
tabula rasa
blank mind
laissez-faire
idea that the state should not interfere with the economy
Balthasar Neumann
architect of the Church of the Fourteen Saints
George Washington
commander in chief of the Continental Army
Articles of Confederation
the American nation's first constitution
Bill of Rights
ten amendments that guranteed certain freedoms
Guglielmo Marconi
sent the first radio waves across the Atlantic
internal-combustion engine
provided a new source of power in transportation
revisionists
Marxists who rejected the revolutionary approach
working class
made up nearly 80 percent of the European population in the early 1900's
Emmeline Pankhurst
founded the Women's Social and Political Union
ministerial responsibility
idea that the prime minister is responsible to the lesgislative body and not to the executive officer
Triple Alliance
Germany,Austria-Hungary, and Italy
Marie Curie
discovered the first radioactive element, radium
Sigmund Freud
published major new theories of human behavior in The Interpretation of Dreams
Claude Monet
Impressionist painter who sought to capture the interplay of light, water, and sky