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final exam cumulative part
Terms in this set (98)
the set of chemical reactions that occur in living organisms to maintain life
put the levels of organization in order from lowest level to highest level
atom, molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
this domain includes prokaryotic cells that live in extreme habitats or environments
multicellular organisms that ingest their food (heterotrophs) belong to which kingdom?
in the following scientific name, Homo is the ______?
what is the driving force of evolution?
true or false: a hypothesis must be in the form of a statement
in a controlled experiment, which of the following is manipulated by the experimenter?
if you do an experiment on how different types of plant additives affect the overall height of a pea plant, what would be the dependent variable?
the overall height of the pea plant
true or false: extinction is the single most significant bioethical issue we face today
true or false: most elements are produced by intense chemical and physical reactions in stars
if an atom has 10 protons, 10 electrons, and 10 neutrons, what is the atomic number?
how many electron shells will oxygen have if it has 8 electrons?
this type of bond occurs when a positive atom and a negative atom are bonded together via electrical charge
when two atoms share electrons unequally, such as the hydrogen and oxygen atoms of water, the bond created is a
polar covalent bond
true or false: the materials that go into a chemical reaction are called the products
the following formula is an example of which type of reaction? CaO + CO2 -> CaCO3
synthesis reaction (anabolism)
water is able to travel up a very tall tree despite the forces of gravity. Which of the following best explains why this occurs?
cohesion and adhesion
I put a substance into a beaker of water. It dissociates by releasing H+ ions. Which of the following would describe this solution?
molecules that are attracted to water are called
organic chemistry specifically involves organic molecules which all contain atoms of
carbon and hydrogen
carbohydrates that are made of long chains (polymers) of monosaccharides are called
starch, cellulose, glycogen and chitin are examples of which of the following?
lipids are variable but have one characteristic in common. what is the characteristic?
hydrophobic and insoluble in water due to non polar hydrocarbon chains
true or false: fat or oil forms when carboxyl groups of three fatty acids react with the -OH group of glycerol to form triglycerides
true or false: saturated fatty acids has 1 or more double bond
_______ protein shape is when a portion of an amino acid chain takes on certain orientations in the form of helixes or pleated sheets
what type of monomers make up proteins?
which of the following is true for RNA but not for DNA?
DNA is composed of nucleotides that contain nitrogenous bases. These bases exhibit complementary base pairing where guanine pairs with:
_____ are the main structural components of plasma membranes
which type of membrane protein binds to a substance and carries it across the membrane while changing shape in the process?
which of these characteristics are shared by all cells?
cytoplasm, DNA, cell membrane
what is true for eukaryotic cells but not prokaryotic cells?
nucleus, membrane-bound organelles, mitotic division, size of ribosome is 80s
what is the function of ribosomes?
mitochondria are called the powerhouse of the cell because they
are the site of cellular respiration and produce ATP
true or false: cilia and flagella are whip-like projections of cells that move cells or move material over surfaces of cells
plant cells can form junctions across their cell walls called
function of the nucleus
control center of the cell and contains DNA
function of chloroplast
site of photosynthesis in plant cells
function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum
synthesizes lipids and forms transport vesicles to carry molecules to other parts of the cell
function of vacuole
acts as a storage reservoir for substances, such as nutrients and ions
function of actin filaments
support the cell by forming a dense web just under the plasma membrane
true or false: the second law of thermodynamics states that energy can be changed from one form to another without a loss of usable energy
cellular respiration requires _____ and carbohydrates
which of the following statements about enzymes is true?
they are catalysts that speed up reaction rates
all of the following are factors affecting enzyme activity except
amount of sunlight
if I have a solution of dye and water in a cup, and there is a concentration gradient in which there is more solute (dye) on one side of the cup (A.) than the other side of the cup (B.), I can expect the dye to move from:
side A. to side B.
______ is the net movement of molecules from high concentration to low concentration with the aid of channel or carrier proteins
a solution is ______ when the cell loses water because, outside the cell, the concentration of solute is greater and the concentration of water is less than inside the cell
when a cell engulfs liquids and small molecules dissolved in liquid, this process is called
diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane in response to solute differences is called
when a cell engulfs molecules, whole cells or bacteria, this process is called
true or false: coal is a fossil fuel source formed from partially fossilized remains of plants that lived millions of years ago
pigments, such as chlorophyll and carotenoids, can specifically be found in which part of the chloroplast?
where does the chloroplast get the hydrogen ions needed for ATP synthase to produce ATP?
electron transport chain and splitting of water
in photosynthesis, oxygen is generated by the
energy for the Calvin cycle is supplied by _______ from the light reactions
ATP and NADPH
____ is the output of the Calvin cycle that is used to generate carbohydrates
why do leaves appear green to us?
because chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b absorb violet, blue and red wavelengths the best, and therefore reflects green wavelengths
where inside the chloroplast does the Calvin cycle occur?
which type of photosynthesis conserves water by only opening their stomata at night but closing them during the day?
true or false: plants that exhibit C4 photosynthesis have evolved a specific anatomy that allows. them to be more successful in hot, dry conditions
the removal of electrons and hydrogen ions
which of the following delivers electrons to the electron transport chain in cellular respiration?
NADH and FADH2
how much ATP is made under optimal conditions during cellular respiration?
which of the following macromolecules cannot be utilized during cellular respiration?
the mail goal of fermentation pathway is
regeneration of NAD+
which of the following are outfits of glycolysis
ATP, NADH and Pyruvate
which step of cellular respiration makes the most ATP?
electron transport chain
what are the inputs for the citric acid cycle?
FAD, Acetyl CoA, NAD+
where does the preparatory reaction take place?
matrix of the mitochondria
true or false: photosynthesis and aerobic cellular respiration are linked processes
DNA is condensed into _____ prior to cell division
match S phase to description
match G1 phase to description
the cell doubles its organelles
match G2 phase to description
rapid cell growth and synthesis of proteins occurs
match telophase to description
chromosomes decondenses to chromatin, nuclear envelope reforms
match anaphase to description
sister chromatids of each chromosome separate
match prophase to description
chromatin condenses into chromosomes, nuclear envelope breaks down
match metaphase to description
chromosomes are aligned at the spindle equator
this cell cycle checkpoint verifies that the spindle fibers are properly attached to the chromosomes
a cell has a finite number of replications. this is due to
this gene codes for proteins that promote the cell cycle and inhibit apoptosis
true or false: humans have two sets of chromosomes and are haploid organisms
the centrosome is
the microtubule organizing center, what gives rise to the mitotic spindle, the place where two centrioles can be found
true or false: in animal cells, cytokinesis occurs when the daughter cells are pinched in two by protein fibers in a contractile ring
which of these are cellular signals or mechanisms that help control the cell cycle and its checkpoints
cyclins, growth factors and hormones, contact inhibition
which of the following is true for mitosis but not for meiosis?
daughter cells are diploid (2N)
what are the two major functions of meiosis?
decreasing the chromosome number and shuffling the chromosomes and genes
crossing-over occurs during which of the following phases of meiosis?
if an egg ends up with 24 chromosomes, this can result in
true or false: meiosis is a common process that occurs in all tissues and is involved in embryonic growth and development as well as tissue repair
humans typically have ____ pairs of chromosomes, 22 of which are ___ and 1 set of ____ chromosomes
23, autosomes, sex
which gene, located on the Y chromosome, plays a critical role in the formation of male features?
XYY individuals are males that are known to be very tall and occasionally have learning disabilities. It is estimated that 1 in 1,000 males is an XYY male. Which syndrome am I describing?
what happens during metaphase I of meiosis?
tetrads align at the spindle equator
what happens during telophase II of meiosis?
chromosomes decondense, and the nuclear envelope reforms
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