Upgrade to remove ads
Unit 3 Exam
Terms in this set (213)
Type I alveolar cells
simple squamous cells where gas exchange occurs
Type II alveolar cells
secrete surfactant that reduces surface tension and prevents the collapse of the alveolus
The lower respiratory tract includes
larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
The pharynx is a shared region between which two body systems?
Respiratory and digestive
The vestibular and vocal folds are found in the...
Terminal bronchioles divide into (in the correct order)...
Respiratory bronchiole, alveolar duct, alveolar sac
True or false: The respiratory membrane, across which gas exchange occurs, is formed by the wall of the respiratory bronchiole and the pulmonary capillary.
The upper respiratory tract includes
nose, nasal cavity, sinuses, pharynx
respiratory zone includes
respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, alveoli
conducting zone includes
trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles
Which parts of the respiratory system are composed of pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium?
Nasal cavity, trachea, paranasal sinuses
Which parts of the respiratory system are composed of simple ciliated columnar epithelium?
Which parts of the respiratory system are composed of nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium?
oropharynx and laryngopharynx
Which parts of the respiratory system are composed of simple squamous epithelium?
alveolar ducts and alveoli
Which parts of the respiratory system are composed of simple ciliated cuboidal epithelium?
terminal broncholes and respiratory broncholes
Nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium can be found lining what area of the respiratory tract?
Mucus + saliva + entrapped material is?
Which cells produce mucus?
What is a protein that increases mucus viscosity
are called dust cells and engulf microorganisms
The control of breathing muscles comes from
nuclei in the brainstem and the cerebral cortex.
True or false: The alveoli never attain equal pressure with the ambient (outside) air.
Decreased alveolar volume causes increased alveolar pressure
The result of the process of inspiration is...
Increased alveolar volume causes decreased alveolar pressure
Inspiration begins as...
The diaphragm contracts
True or false: As the volume in the alveoli increases, the pressure decreases.
True or false: During inspiration thoracic cavity volume increases.
True or false: As the diaphragm relaxes, it is depressed (moves inferiorly).
Elevation of the ribs increases thoracic cavity...
During volume changes in the thoracic cavity, what is primarily responsible for changes in length?
True or false: PCO2 is relatively high in the alveoli and is relatively low in the blood.
The respiratory membrane consists of:
Capillary endothelial cell, Fused basement membranes, Type I alveolar cell
How many alveoli are found in each lung?
The direction of gas movement is determined by
partial pressure differences.
At the arterial end of the pulmonary capillaries,
O2 diffuses from the alveoli into the blood, while CO2 diffuses from the blood into the alveoli.
At the arterial end of the tissue capillaries,
O2 diffuses from the blood into tissue cells, while CO2 diffuses from tissue cells into the blood.
what is the partial pressure of gas measured in?
millimeters of mercury
True or false: At the venous end of tissue capillaries, there is no net movement of O2 and CO2.
respiratory structures in the order that air would pass through them
nares - vestibule - nasal cavity - choanae - nasopharynx - oropharynx - laryngopharynx - larynx - trachea - primary bronchus - secondary bronchus - tertiary bronchus - bronchioles - terminal bronchioles - respiratory bronchioles - alveolar ducts - alveloar sacs - alveoli
the chonchae, inferior meatus and choana are apart of which respiratory structure?
the uvula, palatine tonil, and opening of the auditory tube are apart of which respiratory structure?
the epiglottis, thyroid cartilage, and vocal folds are a part of which respiratory structure?
The respiratory bronchiole, alveolus, and alveolar ducts are ciliated or non-ciliated?
the trachea, bronchiole, terminal bronchiole and bronchi are ciliated or non-ciliated?
If intrapulmonary pressure was 760 mm Hg, what would you expect the intrapleural pressure to be?
756 mm Hg
Contraction of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles results in ____________ in the thoracic volume which results in _______________ of the intrapulmonary pressure.
an increase; a decrease
Negative pressure ventilation, demonstrated by iron lungs, allows a person to breathe by producing an intermittent negative pressure that moves across the chest and diaphragm. This specific action would artificially induce the intrapulmonary pressure to _____________ atmospheric pressure thus resulting in ______________
drop below; inspiration
When this negative pressure stops being applied, the lungs __________________and the intrapulmonary pressure __________________
When using positive pressure ventilators, what triggers the elastic recoil of the lung, and what does this action cause?
airway pressure reaching zero; expiration
Respiratory gases cross the respiratory membrane by ___________________
Which environment separated by the respiratory membrane would display the highest oxygen partial pressure?
Increased production of surfactant would
result in an increase in the thickness of the respiratory membrane, which would decrease diffusion of respiratory gases.
Insufficient surfactant production would result in __________________
a tendency for the lungs to collapse.
Oxygen molecules bind ___________________ of the hemoglobin.
specifically to the heme region
A single hemoglobin displaying a saturation level of 75% would be bound to ___________________________
three oxygen molecules
The binding of CO to hemoglobin causes the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve to ___________________
shift to the left, indicating that the carboxyhemoglobin is less likely to release bound oxygen.
Acute carbon monoxide poisoning would result in ____________________ of the tissues because oxygen ____________________
hypoxia; is not released from hemoglobin in sufficient amounts at the tissues.
Oxygen unloading occurs at the _________________________ This process causes a(n) _________________ in the oxygen partial pressure of the blood leaving this region.
Hyperpnea would result in ___________________________ within the blood.
an increase in Pressure (oxygen) and a decrease in Pressure (carbon dioxide)
Decreased Pressure (carbon dioxide) results in an increase in blood pH levels. Both of these conditions result in a shift of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve to the ______________________. This shift _______________ hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen.
Increased levels of 2,3 BPG occur in response to decreased blood pH levels. With all other variables unchanged, an increased concentration of 2,3 BPG in the blood would _____________________.
result in a shift of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve to the right enhancing unloading of oxygen at the tissues.
Under normal conditions, the alveolar oxygen partial pressure is ______________________ than the atmospheric oxygen partial pressure.
Within the Tibetan highlander population, genetic variation has been found to determine relative oxygen-hemoglobin saturation levels. Individuals within this population may be homozygous for either the low oxygen saturation gene or the high oxygen saturation gene. Individuals may also be heterozygous, carrying one low and one high oxygen saturation gene. Based on this information, individuals within the population carrying __________________________ alleles are expected to demonstrated a physiological advantage for survival.
homozygous high oxygen saturation population
No genetic differences were found among the Andean population in either oxygen-hemoglobin saturation levels, nor hemoglobin concentrations. However, this group as a whole displayed higher hemoglobin concentration levels than their lower altitude neighbors. The most accurate explanation for this finding is that individuals constantly exposed to lower atmospheric partial pressures for oxygen would have a physiologic response which would _______________________.
increase the cumulative number of red blood cells
___________________ is used to sustain metabolic activities within the cells, and ________________ is produced as a result of these activities.
oxygen; carbon dioxide
Under normal conditions, the partial pressure of carbon dioxide within the tissues is _____________ than the partial pressure of carbon dioxide within the systemic capillaries.
The unloading of oxygen at the tissues results in the formation of ______________________ . This configuration of hemoglobin _____________________ carbon dioxide.
deoxyhemoglobin; more readily binds to
Under normal conditions, the region expected to have the lowest PCO2 is the ___________________
If the atmospheric Pressure(CO2) exceeded the alveolar Pressure(CO2) the pulmonary capillary Pressure(CO2) would ________________________
increase well above normal range.
A person suffering from hypercapnia compensates by ____________________ ventilation.
Which of the following are bicarbonate ions exchanged for when they diffuse from plasma back into red blood cells?
At the respiratory membrane, the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the plasma is ________ than in the ________ of the lungs.
Carbon dioxide enters the blood at the _____________________ capillaries. Here, some of the carbon dioxide binds to the _____________ region of hemoglobin.
Carbon dioxide goes through a series of reactions resulting in the formation of bicarbonate. Where does this reaction occur?
Carbonic anhydrase is found in the _______________ where it directly catalyzes the formation of ____________________
red blood cells; carbon dioxide gas into carbonic acid.
Blood pH decreases in response to ________________________
the dissociation of carbonic acid into bicarbonate and hydrogen ions.
Renal retention of bicarbonate _______________ blood pH acting as a compensatory mechanism for the condition of respiratory ____________________________
Hypoventilation results in a(n) _________________ in the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, which may result in respiratory ___________________________
The inspiratory muscles ____________ during normal exhalation resulting in a(n) __________________ in the thoracic volume.
The intrapulmonary pressure is _______________ than the atmospheric pressure during exhalation.
If four new drugs were discovered and each of them esulted in the unique physiologic responses indicated below, which drug do you think would hold the most promise as a cure for tetrodotoxin poisoning?
Drug 1: Stimulated an increase in the amount of neurotransmitters released from motor neurons
Drug 2: Inhibited action potentials of motor neurons
Drug 3: Caused hyper-exitability of nervous and muscle tissue
Drug 4: Dilated the alveoli within the lungs
The reason tetrodotoxin causes death so quickly is directly related to __________________________
the loss of respiratory muscle function, which disables a person's ability to appropriately adjust thoracic volumes and associated intrapulmonary. pressures
The respiratory system regulates __________ and __________ levels within the blood.
oxygen; carbon dioxide
The act of moving air into and out of the lungs via the respiratory tract is specifically called __________.
The membrane between the alveolus and the pulmonary capillary allows for the movement of __________ into the blood, and the movement of __________ out of the blood.
oxygen; carbon dioxide
A decrease in available hydrogen ions in the red blood cell would cause which of the following?
The tissues will receive less oxygen.
Contraction of the __________ causes the thoracic cavity to expand, resulting in normal, at rest inhalation.
The __________ of the bronchiole controls its diameter, while the __________ layer traps foreign particles.
smooth muscle; mucus
Which of the following lists the two main conditions associated with COPD?
Emphysema; chronic bronchitis
The nose and its nasal mucus helps to _________, protecting the respiratory system.
trap bacteria and debris
Also known as __________, the common cold is caused by a virus and its symptoms include inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, itching, sneezing, and excessive mucus secretion.
The most common antibiotic used to treat the common cold is __________.
Antibiotics are not effective against the common cold.
If a patient presents with a runny nose, sore throat, and cough, you can determine that the most distal structure in the respiratory tract that the infection has reached is the __________.
Shifts in the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood can indicate __________.
The _______ system provides for gaseous exchange between the environment and blood stream.
As part of the __________ system, nose guard hairs reduce inhalation of other foreign matter.
The __________ system provides rigidity to the thoracic cage for respiratory mechanics.
Production of signals to skeletal muscles is one example of the ___________ system's effect on respiratory function, along with maintaining sensory afferents regarding pH, oxygenation, and stretch on the lungs.
The ___________ system works with the respiratory system to maintain blood pressure via ACE conversion of angiotensin I.
The alternating pressures associated with the thoracic pump of the respiratory system promotes _____________ function by increasing venous return to the right side of the heart.
The ______________ system benefits from the thoracic pump by the promotion of lymph return.
The Valsalva maneuver is useful in the elimination of fluid wastes of the ________________
Fecal elimination is promoted via use of the Valsalva maneuver, which is an example of _____________ and respiratory interaction.
Besides the critical delivery of oxygen to a developing fetus, the Valsalva maneuver aids the ____________ system during childbirth.
surface mucous cells secrete
mucous neck cells secrete
Parietal cells secrete
hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor
chief cells secrete
enteroendocrine cells secrete
hormones such as gastrin and paracrine messengers
The process of moving a bolus through the GI tract as a result of involuntary muscle contractions is referred to as
Hydrochloric acid is secreted in the
Most nutrient absorption occurs in the
What organ produces bile?
What is the correct order for the major parts of the gastrointestinal tract?
Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
parotid salivary gland
sublingual salivary gland
submandibular salivary gland
The process of moving substances through the epithelial cells that line the GI tract into the blood or lymph is called
From external to internal, what is the correct order of layers of the stomach?
Serosa, muscularis, submucosa, mucosa
The stomach is located in which abdominal quadrant?
Functions of the stomach include...
Chemical and mechanical digestion
Which region of the stomach is continuous with the esophagus?
Which cell of the gastric glands produces pepsinogen?
The enzyme pepsin is formed from pepsinogen through the action of
A portal triad consists of which three elements?
Branches of a hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein, and bile duct
Structurally, the human liver is divided into how many lobes?
True or false: The liver lobule is the same as a hepatocyte.
Basic functions of the liver include...
secretion, storage, and detoxification
Which two fetal remnants are found on the liver?
The round ligament and the ligamentum venosum
Three main vessels make up the hepatic triad include:
the hepatic portal vein, hepatic artery, and bile ductules.
The hepatic portal vein delivers nutrient ______, oxygen ______ blood to the liver cells
The _________ is responsible for delivering oxygen _____ blood to the hepatocytes and thus providing for the large metabolic demand for this tissue.
hepatic artery; rich
The ________ collect bile produced in the hepatic lobules and deliver it to the hepatic ducts on their way to the ___________ for storage.
hepatic ductules; gallbladder
What is the function of bile?
Break down fats to assist in their chemical digestion
Mass movements in the colon are stimulated by
food in the stomach and chyme in the duodenum.
Mass movements of the colon are integrated by
Defecation is stimulated by
parasympathetic reflexes and local reflexes.
True or false: Defecation reflexes are stimulated by the presence of feces in the rectum.
True or false: Mass movements of the colon propel its contents toward the rectum.
Normal bacterial flora in the large intestine are responsible for the production of vitamins B and
salivary amylase and pancreatic amylase assist in digesting:
Pepsin, HCl, Trypsin, and chymotrypsin assist in digesting:
lingual lipase, pancreatic lipase, gastric lipase, and bile salts assist in digesting:
Digested triglycerides are contained within the _____________ prior to being transported across the simple columnar epithelial lining of the small intestine into the epithelial cells.
Damla is visiting her grandmother, and when she walks into the kitchen she smells her favorite dish. Damla starts to salivate immediately. Which parts of the oral cavity receive the salivary secretions from the salivary glands?
The vestibule and the floor of the oral cavity
The main functions of the urinary system are
Removal of waste and regulation of water and electrolyte balance
Blood vessels and the renal calices are located in the
True or false: The renal cortex is more superficial than the renal medulla.
True or false: Urine is propelled along the ureters by peristaltic waves of muscular contractions?
What is the collective name for the layers of muscle in the wall of the urinary bladder?
The detrusor muscle
Reservoir for urine until micturition (urination) occurs in
Transports urine from kidney to urinary bladder via peristalsis occurs in
Transports urine from urinary bladder to outside the body occurs in
Which organ filters blood and processes filtrate into tubular fluid, then urine
The functional filtration unit of the kidney is the
What is the correct branching sequence of arteries in the kidney?
Renal artery, segmental arteries, interlobar arteries
The junction of the renal medulla and renal cortex is called the
The major calices merge to form a single, funnel-shaped
Blood vessels, nerves and the renal pelvis enter/exit the kidney at the
The two components of a nephron are the
Renal corpuscle and renal tubule
True or false: Filtration occurs in the renal corpuscle.
What is the correct sequence for parts of the renal tubule?
Proximal convoluted tubule, nephron loop, distal convoluted tubule
Cortical nephrons can be distinguished from juxtamedullary nephrons by
Their location within the renal cortex
The juxtaglomerular apparatus
Monitors blood sodium concentration and adjusts glomerular filtration volume
histology of proximal convoluted tubule
which structure contains podocytes, pedicels, and filtration slits
which structure secretes ions into the tubular fluid; reabsorption of water
Distal convoluted tubule
which structure contains a descending limb and an ascending limb
which structure contains cuboidal cells with tall microvilli; active reabsorption
proximal convoluted tubule
Urine is formed in the
What percentage of glomerular filtrate becomes urine?
Most of the water in tubular fluid is resorbed in the
Proximal convoluted tubule
Tubular secretion involves the movement of substances
From capillary blood to tubular fluid
Secretion occurs when
when waste products from blood pass from the peritubular capillaries to the nephron tubules
Filtration occurs when
blood fluids leave the glomerulus and enter the Bowman's capsule.
Reabsorption occurs when
the filtrate passes from the nephron tubules to the peritubular capillaries.
True or false: Once a substance is separated from the blood supply by the nephron, it is excreted in the urine.
True or false: All of the blood that enters the area of the nephron from the renal artery is filtered with each pass.
The external urethral sphincter is under ___________ control.
True or false: Sympathetic impulses cause the smooth muscle of the bladder wall to contract.
Relaxation of the external urethral sphincter is caused by
Signals from the brain
The micturition reflex involves impulses from the bladder traveling to which region of the spinal cord?
What causes an increase in the frequency of action potentials from the bladder to the spinal cord?
Distension of the bladder from an increase in urine
Which cells produce testosterone?
How many sperm are produced in the testes each day?
Which duct(s) of the male reproductive system pass(es) through the prostate gland?
Which part of the penis has the external urethral orifice?
The prostate gland secretes
Citric acid, seminalplasmin, PSA
Bulbourethral glands secrete
Mucin for lubrication
Seminal vesicles secrete
Fructose, prostaglandins, bicarbonate
What is the name of the germ cell from which sperm arise?
Primary spermatocytes are diploid or haploid?
Secondary spermatocytes divide to form
Sperm cells reach maturity in the
The non-germ cells of the seminiferous tubule epithelium are known as
Each ovary is attached to the uterus by the __________ ligament and is held in place by the ______________ ligament.
Which region of the uterine tube is the normal site of fertilization?
Which of the following is found in the cortex of the ovary?
the ovarian follicle
Gonadotropin releasing hormone is released by the
Which hormone prevents degeneration of the corpus luteum?
Human chorionic gonadotropin
Decreasing levels of ____________ lead to sloughing, or shedding, of the endometrial lining.
When does a mature oocyte complete meiosis I?
Just prior to ovulation
If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum becomes a
When a primary follicle enlarges, and there are several layers of granulosa cells, it is called a
What kind of follicle has an antrum?
Put the stages of follicle development into the correct order, beginning with the earliest structure that develops.
Primordial follicle, Primary follicle, Secondary follicle, Mature follicle, Corpus luteum, Corpus albicans
Puberty in humans is the result of changes in the ___________, which result in an increased secretion of _________, which then stimulates an increased secretion of __________.
hypothalamus; GnRH; LH
During ovulation, the ________ ruptures and the oocyte enters the uterine tube; later, the empty follicle undergoes structural and biochemical changes and a __________ is formed.
follicle; corpus luteum
A hormone produced and released by the kidney that stimulates the production of red blood cells by the bone marrow.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
A&P 2 Connect - Blood
Human Anatomy Lecture Exam Unit 4
Chapter 22 The Respiratory System Part 2…
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
A&P Lecture Section 3
A&P Lecture Section 3
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
ALLH Final Exam
UNIT 2 Exam BIO
Statistics Unit #1
UNIT 1 EXAM A&P
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Gen Phys - Ch 16
Ch. 10 Physio Study Guide
Anatomy Chapter 22