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Ch. 2 Radiation Types, Sources, & Doses Received
Terms in this set (59)
Absorbed Dose (D)
the amount of energy per unit mass absorbed by an irradiated object. This absorbed energy is responsible for any biologic damage resulting from the tissues being exposed to radiation. The gray (Gy) is the SI unit of this radiation quantity
ejecting electrons from the atoms comprising the tissue
destructive radiation interaction at the atomic level results in molecular change, leading to abnormal cell function or even loss of cell function
Effective Dose (EfD)
Quantity that is used for radiation protection purposes to provide a measure of the overall risk of exposure to humans from ionizing radiation. It takes into account the dose from all types of ionizing radiation to various irradiated organs or tissues in the human body. By including a specific weighting factor for each of those parts of the body mentioned, and takes into account the chance or risk of each of those body parts to develop a radiation induced cancer.
radiation composed of interacting, varying electric and magnetic fields that propagate through space at the speed of light. Examples include radio waves, microwaves, visible light, ultraviolet rays, x-rays and gamma rays
the full range of frequencies and wavelengths or electromagnetic waves
electric and magnetic fields that fluctuate rapidly as they traveled through space, including radio waves, microwaves, visible light, and x-rays
Equivalent dose (EqD)
A radiation quantity used for radiation protection purposes when a person receive exposure from various types of ionizing radiation. This quantity attempts to numerically specify the differences in transferred energy and therefore potential biologic harm that are produced by different types of radiation. Is the product of the average absorbed dose in a tissue or organ in the human body and its associated radiation weighting factor chosen for the type of radiation in question.
is the process of removing electrons from an atom by electromagnetic energy
atoms that have the same number of protons within the nucleus but have different numbers of neutrons
Manmade, or artifical Radiation
ionizing radiation created by humans for various uses, including nuclear fuel for generation of power, consumer products containing radioactive material, air travel security and medical radiation
A subunit of a gray equal to one one-thousandth of a gray
A subunit of a rad equal to one one-thousandth of a rad
ionizing radiation from environmental sources, including radioactive materials in the earth, cosmic radiation from space, and radionuclides deposited in the human body via the food chain
changes in blood count that results from non negligible exposure to ionizing radiation
as opposed to x-rays and gamma rays, which are electromagnetic radiations. Is a form of radiation that includes alpha particles, beta particles, neutrons, and protons that are ejected from atoms at very high speeds
kinetic energy that passes from one location to another; a transfer of energy that results from either a change occurring naturally within an atom or process caused by the interaction of a particle with an atom
the amount of radiation received by an individual. The amount of energy transferred to electrons in biological tissue by ionizing radiation is the basis of this concept
a naturally occurring process in which atoms with unstable nuclei relieve that instability by various types of nuclear spontaneous emissions, including charged particles, uncharged particles and photons
Isotopes of a particular element that are unstable because of their neutron-protein configuration.
an unstable nucleus that emits one or more forms of ionizing radiation to achieve greater stability. The emissions may include alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays
the first decay product of radium; a colorless, odorless, heavy radioactive gas that, along with its own decay products, plotnium-218 and polonium-214 is always present to some degree in the air. It comprises that largest component of natural background radiation
Mechanical vibration of materials:
- Radio waves
- Visible light
- Gamma rays
Electromagnetic waves are characterized by their ____________ & ___________
Frequency & Wavelength
In _______________________, electric and magnetic fields fluctuate rapidly as they travel through space.
Dual nature of electromagnetic radiation (wave-particle duality)
This form of radiation can travel through space in the form of a wave but can interact with matter as a particle of energy.
________________ & ___________________ are the only form of ionization energy in the EM spectrum.
X-rays and gamma rays
does not have sufficient kinetic energy to eject electrons from atoms.
- Another category of ionizing radiation
- Includes alpha particles, beta particles, neutrons and protons
- These particles are ejected from the atom with enough energy to cause ionization of other atoms
- Emitted from the nuclei of very heavy elements such as uranium and plutonium during the process of radioactive decay
- Contain two protons and two neutrons
is where an unstable atomic nuclei tries to become stable by emitting particles.
___________________________ are less penetrating than beta particles (fast electrons).
- Are just like x-rays except for their origin
- X-rays are created from outer shell e- ejection
- Are created from a nucleus ejecting a negative charge like an e-
____________________ are much more penetrating than alpha particles and are used in treatments of skin cancer. It requires about 1mm thick lead shield to absorb their energy.
- Positively charged components of the nucleus of an atom
- Corresponds to the Z number or atomic number of the atom
- Used in alpha particle production
- Electrically neutral components of the atom
- Atoms contain the same number of protons and neutrons if they are stable
- If two atoms have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons in their nuclei, they are referred to as isotopes.
- A radiation quantity, absorbed dose, refers to the amount of kinetic energy per unit mass that has been absorbed in a material due to its interaction with ionizing radiation.
- Measured in units of milligray (mGy).
Equivalent dose (EqD)
- a quantity that attempts to take into account the variation in biologic harm that is produced by different types of radiation.
- The product of the average absorbed dose in a tissue or organ and its associated radiation weighting factor chosen or the type of radiation in question.
- Enables the calculation of effective (Efd) dose
- Measured in Sv or rem
- 1 Sievert (Sv) or 100 rem
value that denotes the cancer plus genetic risk stemming from irradiation of tissues.
Effective dose (EfD)
- A measure of the overall risk of exposure to ionizing radiation
- Takes into account the dose for all types of ionizing radiation to organs or tissues being irradiated and the overall harm, or weighting factor, of those biologic components for developing a radiation induced cancer or genetic damage for the reproductive organs.
radiation damage for generations yet unborn.
Which term is used to describe the overall risk of radiation exposure?
Damage in living tissue
Injury to the cellular level
Genetic or somatic changes in living organisms
any cells other than the reproductive cells
- Terrestrial radiation from radioactive materials on the crust of the earth (Radon)
- Cosmic radiation from the sun (solar) and beyond (galactic)
- Internal, from radionuclides, radioactive atoms that make up a small percentage of the body's tissue
US receives about _________________ per year from cosmic radiation.
.3 mSv or 30 mrem
MANMADE (ARTIFICIAL) RADIATION:
- Consumer products containing radioactive material
- Air travel
- Nuclear fuel for generations of power
- Atmosphere fallout from nuclear weapons
- Nuclear power plant accidents
- Medical radiation
Average annual exposure _____________________ from medical radiation
.6 mSv or 60 mrem
__________________ is the largest source of artificial radiation.
brings consumers closer to sunspot activity
TV, electron microscopes, shoe fitting fluoroscopes, porcelain dentures contains a radioactive substance.
Which type of radiation category does radon fall under?
- According to NCRP report 93 the percentage of medical radiation exposure has significantly increased from 1980 to 2009
- Results are from increased usage of CT and improvements in imaging abilities in multi-modalities
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