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Exam 2 sociology terms
Terms in this set (123)
Theories to know
2. evolutionary psychological
3. structural feminist
4. liberal feminist
5. radical feminist
6. cultural feminist
7. separatist feminist
8. marxist feminist
9. black/multicultural feminist
10. transnational/global feminist
in class discussion of Gillette ad:
- got a lot of praise but also condemned
- its basically visualizing concepts of toxic masculinity
- this ad is about men being sexually aggressive, as well as just simply the aggressive element, anti-feminine "boys will be boys"
- some men might argue that its encouraging feminism, its encouraging men not to do masculine things
what theory is the Gillette ad closest to?
- Liberal feminist
what would a physiological theorist say about the ad?
- men are different than girls and there are certain qualities that are physiologically based and this is why they are the way they are. It causes this kind of socialization
what would an evolutionary psychologist say about the ad?
- boys have to chase girls and boys have to fight each other because they are doing it for their own FITNESS.
- even though it might be distasteful they are trying to do fitness
what would a cultural feminist say about the ad?
- they would say the solution is that men should become more caring and nurturing
- some people are exposed to a certain media and some are not
- people are selectively exposed to media
example of selective exposure
- some people were exposed to the Gillette ad and others were not
- you as the viewer are perceiving it
- just because people are seeing the media doesn't mean they will view it in the same way
example of selective perception
- just because people saw the Gillette ad doesn't mean everyone liked it, hated it, or had no effect on them.
- people will perceive the video in different way
- most media can have multiple videos
- video can present different voices
Baby got back video class reactions
- some liked it, some didn't, and some said it had no affect on them
what are the two messages the baby got back video could send?
1. big butts are good
2. is body positive that even if you're big don't be ashamed
- focusing on certain parts of the body
- example: baby got back video focuses on the butt
- treating a person or viewing a person as an object
Separatist Feminism (THEORY)
- similar principle to radical feminism and could fall under this term. But make a distinction between the two.
- the principle is basically that women are oppressed and the root cause of oppression could be ANYTHING
- could be social or biological reasons for oppression but whatever the reason is women have been oppressed so now there is a huge gap between women and men
- they say that men as a collective have been in control, even good men like one's dad, is part of a patriarchal system
- MAXIMALIST/ NATURE/NURTURE (its situational)
- live separate from men and live apart to escape patriarchy
example of separatist feminist
- a music festival called "womyn born womyn" if you were not born women you did not count
- women camp grounds
- no interactions with men
Womyn born womyn
- music festival for all girls
- same sex interaction
- sororities and fraternities
Separatist feminism theory argument
- for women to live apart from men.
- to have separate communities from men
- should be distant interpersonally and sexually.
- women interaction ONLY. no interaction with men
- this theory is held by a tiny percentage of feminists
mild example of separatist feminism
- sorority, its a community of women living together with women in a community of sisterhood.
extreme example of separatist feminism
- two women that live in an RV and travel around.
- the don't trust men to be the mechanics so they go to women
- stay at women only camp grounds
- go to music festivals for only women
where do transgender people fall when it comes to separatist feminism?
- if you were born a man and trying to be a women by being transgender it doesn't matter because you can't change your DNA.
- if you are a women trying to be a man by being transgender then you are still biologically a women so you are accepted
- theres a group of radical feminists and separatists within this group
- argument is that men are biologically different from women and nothing can be done to them to make them comparable
- they believe transgender women (men trying to be women) are simply men
- and they believe that transgender men (women trying to be men) are simply women
- having a small woman's group is a continuum (sororities etc)
discussion in class over men/women colleges
- all mens colleges: justification, no distractions, greater competition, classical type of education
- all women colleges: safety, no distractions, comfortable talking in classrooms
- Boston college professor focused on religion
- ended career by voluntarily retiring when they refused to let her have an all girls class in 1999
- her argument: presence of men automatically shuts down open discussion with women
Black Feminist/ Multicultural feminist (THEORY)
- most of the theories we talked about have been white women more specifically white middle class women. its sort of from an angle of whiteness. it doesn't take into account the intersection of black women.
- black feminism is a very limited theory because where are the other racial groups therefore sometimes called multicultural feminist
- theory is that a feminist theory is incomplete unless it also incorporated race and ethnicity
- they say you cannot separate gender and race. some go further to say its class, sexuality, gender and race
- the idea is if we think about gender we have to think of it as intersecting with race, class, and sex. Its called intersectionality
- black women have double disadvantage, double burden, double jeapordy
- when we think about gender we have to think about race, class and sex.
- part of black/ multicultural feminist theory
example of intersectionality
- the amendment that women can vote but yet not all women, black women couldn't vote until much later.
black women critique on baby got back video
- pro black feminist argue that standards of attractiveness imposed on everyone
- privileging women with big butts (not the typical white skinny women)
- the combination of race and gender, race and sex.
- for example: if being female is a disadvantage and being black is a disadvantage this means black women have double the burden
- big racial differences for women not men
jogging and exercise in the black community
- this is an example of intersectionality
- a boy did a study on exercise and jogging in the black community
- black women were more likely to jog in white communities because they might feel safer
- black men were less likely to jog in white communities maybe because it might cause issues with race.
- women worry about safety
- men worry about judgements
- this is an example in which race and sex are intersected
according to the bem scale
- there is a big racial difference for women but for men there is less of a racial difference
structural functionalist thoughts on boy only/ girl only classes
- might think we need to structuralism girls and men. maybe separate classes make sense and certain classes should be only for boys/ only for girls
- example: they would say only women should take a home ec class in high school
when class talks about Mary Daly theory what kind of stance does most the class have?
- a liberal feminist stance
- they think everyone should be treated equally
- the class should be offered to both men and women
class discussion about IU "Hoosiers" how does class visualize a hoosier
- red and white clothes
- candy stripe overalls
- old white man in IU clothes
- a farmer
- someone from Indiana
what is a femininity theme?
- women as deviant
women as deviant
- women are not the norm
- example: when you look up "person" on google men pop up
- men are the unmarked
- women are marked
what does it mean by "marked"
- you have to say "women" you have to mark them but by saying person people typically assume you're talking about a man.
- men are always the default its not specified
- its when you have to specify the sex when talking about something
- example: in newspaper it says "college basketball" when talking about IU mens basketball. When talking about women basketball it says "women's basketball"
- example: you have nurses and then you have "male nurses"
example of women deviant and gender marking
- movies: men and women chose male leaders
- politics: women in legislature is more strong in the west and the east. Indiana is the lower percent bottom 11th. South has least women in legislature.
- links to deviance
- a master status is the status that overrides anything else
example of master status:
- suppose the professor said that our TA will have office hours but not tomorrow because she has to meet with her probation officer. From this point on her being with a probation officer will always be in our evaluation of her.
master status for white men
- since they are unmarked men is not the master status, its whatever else they do like doctor
white women master status
black man master status
black women master status
- they have two
- black and female
in black feminism there are two master statuses
- being female and being black.
class discussion on being tan. Why is a tan attractive? why does it matter?
- in American society being tan is typically seen as very attractive for white people
- people in class say:
- looks healthier
- looks happier
- shoes leisure and wealth
- pale makes you look sickly
do ideas of beauty change? give an example.
- yes ideas of beauty change.
- pale used to be considered beautiful but now its tan
what is a tan for white people
- its a signal status for white people in contemporary US society.
Parallels of themes of masculinity compared to femininity themes
- no sissy stuff--> women as deviant
- Big wheel--> fear/ambivalence of success (women are realistic about the amount of success)
- Sturdy Oak--> protected/dependent women are to be protected (titanic example)
- Give them hell--> nurturance
- Hormones in overdrive--> double bind
Patricia Hill Collins
- wrote about black feminism
- matrix of domination
- combination/intersection of race, gender, and class
- character ads example: energizer bunny
- create scenario everything is the same besides variables you're interested in (job applications) manipulated sex of the student and GPA- survey experiment- people are given survey and they know they are being surveyed (woman likability)
- type of experiment is survey
- audit study
- real life experiment, trained young men and women (all races) to go to car dealerships in Chicago area
- white men
- white women
- black men
- black women
- buying products that ultimately provides a signal of your status
- examples: canada goose, rolex, AirPods, Patagonia
is conspicuous consumption intentional or non intentional? explain
- it can be either
- it can be intentional on the part of the consumer because they might buy clothes to present a certain image
- it can be non intentional on the part of the consumer because some people might buy things without realizing they are forming a status.
Can there be variation status with in race?
- in terms of black community there is a hierarchy in terms of color with lighter being a higher status
- in India lighter skin means a higher status
- Places in Africa try to lighten skin
- when we even think about the natural idea of what is attractive, even this notion of attractiveness is social constructive.
- it is defined within our society.
- the views of attractiveness and clothing are socially constructed
- the theme is that women are expected to be nurturing. they are expected to be good caring parents
example of nurturance
- when a women says she doesn't want to have kids its weird. But when a man says it thats okay. Then there is the case when a women says she doesn't want to have kids and then she is expected to change her mind later
what could happen to men and women in terms of the job force?
- for women the motherhood penalty
- for men the fatherhood boost
- women who are mother are less likely to be hired
- the idea is that she is caring and will have to take care of everything like the house, kids, and husband
- men have to work hard to take care of the family (kids) they have
- if you want a pay raise as a guy say you're a dad and you will get it.
- makes them look more responsible
Sexual Double Bind
- women have to be sexual enough so they aren't viewed negatively. BUT also they can't be too sexual or else they will be viewed negatively
example of sexual double bind
- its okay for men to have more sexual partners but if women have a lot thats a bad thing
- if a woman has sex with too many people then guys won't want to be with her
- but thats not the case for men
- 40 year old virgin movie
- there are lots of metaphors for having sex that correlate with sports
- 1st, 2nd, 3rd base
- hit that
- striking out
- touch down
- notice its all about what a guy does to a girl
- when talking about sex a lot of times its about what guys do to girls
social construction appearance
- he showed us diapers. one is pink with flowers for girls and the other is blue with trains and sailboats for boys.
- shows us overall one is all pink with flowers for girls. the other is red with planes for boy.
- little blue turtle neck for boy and white with ruffles for girl
what happened when the mom dressed the boy in the white turtle neck with ruffles and put the girl in the blue turtle neck and then the babysitter would come over
- when the mom got home the babysitter had switched there shirts so the girl was in the "girl outfit" and the boy was in the "boy outfit"
in the early 1900s what was different about colors
- pink was for boys and blue was for girls
- pink was for boys because people thought it was the more decided and stronger color.
- blue was for the girls because it was seen as more delicate and dainty so it was for girls
what are some examples of social construction
- colors and clothing
Hamilton, England and Armstrong
- wrote a book about a university and they concluded that hookups might be a more rational strategy for women to have than a relationship
- they view relationship as a greedy institution
what are Hamilton, England, and Armstrongs claims
1. if you are in a relationship women will invest a ton of time and energy into that relationship which means they will have less time and energy to invest in other relationships
2. the age of when to get married is much older than it used to be so its a longer time between single hood and marriage and they think it is when you should develop your time as a person
3. they claim that all though hookups results in the double standard regarding women but it is also the most effective way for women to find themselves and find their professional career.
- seemingly obvious purpose of something
what is the manifest function of food
- to eat
what is the manifest function of clothes
- to cover the body
- another purpose
what is the latent function of food
- it can show status/class like if you eat a lobster
what is the latent function of clothes
- clothing it to show your wealth (brands)
- identify gender/personality
- tells people if you fit into your environment or not
global/transnational feminism (THEORY)
- goes beyond race and asks the question "how should we be looking at gender from a global perspective?"
- the argument is we don't particularly talk about the gender issues worldwide, we just focus on our own stuff
- worldwide issues of gender should be focused on
- argues that the way western feminists look at the world is very limited perspective
- NURTURE, CONFLICT, MINIMALIST OR MAXIMALIST (can be either one)
- covering around the head but can still see face
- almost all full covering other than the eyes
what class thinks about the Hijab and Burka regarding gender
- both are empowering things because its about their religion not gender
- most class sees them as constraining
- women should be able to show as much or as little as they want to without being objectified
- must be based on choice
what would a Transnational feminist say about the Hijab and Burka
- this is based on western lens. Think about USA women they show all this flesh and they are expected to do this.
- which of these is more positive: when women are expected to show flesh? or when they are expected to cover it?
- argument would say which is more preside a culture where you are judged on your body or a culture where you are not able to be judged by your body?
- phone interviews/surveys
- stands for "whatever it means to you"
religion discussion in class
- survey of three categories
1. not very religious
2. moderately religious
3. very religious
- most people said moderately religious
in the US do people rate themselves as more religious than people in other countries?
in most countries (not Israel) who rates themselves as more religious men or women?
women say they are more religious XX>XY
what are ways to measure religiosity?
- how much you believe
why are women more religious
- give birth
- religious is sexist and women feel guilty because of Adam and eve
- most people rate their religion less masculine
- some ideas of religion appeal more to feminine values
- father of authority figure
- the idea is that a church is a community so women are more likely to go because they want community
Paradox of Religion
- in one hand women are more engaged in religion then men are and yet if you look at who's controlling religion or who leads it, it is mostly masculine based.
- the paradox is when you have an institution that is so male based why is it that women are subscribing to the religion more than men?
- women are more liberal than men
- contradiction between women and politics
Marxist Feminism (THEORY)
- starts with a critique of capitalism
- capitalist structure is unsustainable
- tension between bourgeoisie (owners of the means of production) and proletariat (workers)
- Bourgeoisie wil get wealthier and proletariat will become more miserable and develop a class consciousness (something in common with one another)
- workers then will move away from private ownership
- gender inequality is a direct result of capitalist structure
- class structure leads to gender inequality
- men and women are divided into certain occupations
- how can genders unite when they are seen as such opposites
- Marx feminist critiques other feminists
- private ownership, lasses faire (under checked/private ownership)
- motivation is profit
what is Marx theory thoughts on radical feminists
- men and women should unite and transcend classes
class discussion: childhood
- prelude of what you turn into
- even if childhood isn't linked to future it remains important
what does mead argue?
- what makes us human is that we know how to interact with others
- we have an idea of what the others are doing (take role of others)
how you develop as a child
- play (less people)
- games (involve more people, organizes)
what toys did he play with in class
- my little pony and barbies = feminine
- TREX and G.I Joe = masculinity
- barbie Ken = white man
- he man
- peek a boo
- puppy surprise
what would Marx say about children toys
- capitalism is promoting this purchasing (girls vs boys)
- he argues that boys and girls will gravitate to what they like or take boy toy and treat it as how they are taught to treat things (trex being a baby doll)
what would a liberal feminist say about children toys
- men and women have both been grown up to play with certain toys, how can a boy become a good parent if they don't practice with dolls like girls are taught to
what is the latent function when playing with toys
- think about roles regarding gender
what is the manifest function when playing with toys
- to have fun
- if you think about different words choices you can think about different word imagery coming from it
- different word choices can create different meanings
sports example of language
- Washington redskins football team. people say it is a racial slur but others defend the name
- the bullets switched name to the wizards because they thought the bullets was promoting gun violence
political example of language
- French fries to freedom fries
- pro-choice, pro-life, pro-abortion, anti-choice
transgender example of language
- people don't like the phrase "sex change surgery" so they think we should say "gender reaffirmation surgery"
- language is important because it shapes the way we think
- the argument is that language in terms of content and the structure of language can expand how you think about things or limit how you think about things
Cultural/social mirror/ reflection hypothesis
- opposite of Sapir-whorf hypothesis
- argues that the way we think or our culture determines the language
- society affects the content of language. Language changes all of the time
Cultural Lag hypothesis
- basically says that language is reflective of our culture, its reflective of our culture from THE PAST
- the way we used to be determines language
- language doesn't keep up with our society as quickly as we change
how does language link to gender
- female/male synonyms in dictionary
"woman" in language
- specific noun
- "wifman" means women person
- she, her, her (links to women being deviant)
"man" in language
- it could be generic or specific noun
- "werman" means person with weapon
- he, his, him
in old English what did the word "man" refer to
- it referred to all adults. it used to just be generic
the word man has turned from being generic to what
- generic and specific at the same time
the word "their"
- its not being used as a generic version of a pronoun.
- used to refer to a single person like "someone lost their book"
- its becoming an alternative that people are using if they are unaware of the correct gender
some people say "their" is confusing so what do they want to do
- come up with a new word for example "Ze" or "Tay"
a new word. like "ze" or "tay"
does language always change
yes it changes all the time
- new word in urban dictionary
- means hispanic background, no sex specificity
- new word in urban dictionary
- means support, separate theory, against
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