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Praxis ii 0330

Praxis ii Speech Language Pathology test prep
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7 Intrinsic Laryngeal Muscles
Cricothyroid, Cricoarytenoid(lateral), Cricoarytenoid(posterior), Arytenoid, Thyroarytenoid,Aryepiglottis, Thyroepiglottis
7 Extrinsic Laryngeal Muscles
Digastric, Stylohyoid,Mylohyoid,Geniohyoid,Hypoglossus, Genioglossus, Thropharyngeus
Laryngeal Cartliages
Thyroid,Cricoid,Epiglottis,Arytenoids(2),Corniculate(2), Cuneiform(2)
Aperiodic Sounds
whispered speech
vocal folds DO NOT vibrate during whispered speech
Otitis Media with Effusion (OME)
is when there is thick or sticky fluid behind the eardrum in the middle ear, with no infection
Hyperabduction
is a specific form of muscle tension, dysphonia, characterised by excessive abduction of the vocal cords. This means that the vocal folds are not able to come together or adduct sufficiently in order to produce voice.
Symptoms of Hyperabduction
weak breathy and or hoarse voice,decreased volume,excessive air escaping through the larynx during speech,phonation breaks,effortful phonation,vocal fatigue, short maximum phonation time
Hyperadduction
is a spcific form of muscle tension dysphonia characterised by excessive adduction or coming together of the vocal folds. Habitual use of a hyperadductive phonatory pattern can lead to the developement of vocal fold pathologies such as nodules or polyps
Glottal Fry
is an indicator of possible contact ulcers
Overshooting or undershooting of an action
indicative of cerebellar involvement
Using coughing or throat clearing
is an effective treatment to produce phonation in Aphonia
Blom-Singer or Panje Prothesis
shunt air from the trachea to the esophagus to allow patient to produce voice
Anoxic Encephalopathy
brain damage caused by lack of oxygen that leads to global impairments of memory
Perturbation
is a disturbance in the quality of the laryngeal tone, or fundamental frequency. Fundamental frequency=Fo
Williams Syndrome
delayed speech,developementally delayed,feeding problems,ADD,Learning disorders,Inward bend of little finger(clinlodactyly),mental retardation,very friendly,trusting strangers,fearing loud noises or physical contact and being interested in music, shorter than other members of the family,sunken chest,flat nasal bridge,long ridges on btwn nose and lip,prominent lips with open mouth,skin covering inner corner of the eye,missing teeth, enamel problems and widely spaced teeth
The effectiveness of tx can be best demonstrated by
Single-subject design
Medialization Thyroplasty
surgical procedure which moves the paralyzed vocal fold closer to the mid glottis to allow better compensation by the unaffected fold
Cohesive devices
are used to link sentences together in a clear and logical manner. synonyms,transition words, enumeration
Facilitation Process
exploit the available repertoire and incorporate new material in to the existing language system
Stroboscopy
is the best measure of viewing the vocal folds during phonation
Eustachian Tube Dysfunction
is nearly universal in cleft palate patients
A single prolonged exposure to loud noise will cause
tinnitus and temporary threshold shift in the higher frequencies
Hypoglossus
control over the fundamental frequency of laryngeal tone
Children with brain injuries
have greated problem managing their deficits
Reflexive vocalizations
cries, coughs, hiccups, which are related to the babys physical state
Canonical babbling
consonant-vowel combinations called canonical syllables begin to appear in a childs babbling(baaa, dadada, goo)
2 language acquisition views
Behaviorist Interpretation & Nativist Interpretation
Behaviorist Interpretation
stimulus-response-view of all behavior
classical conditioning explains word meaning acquisiton(new meanings to old stimuli)
Watsons research on Little Albert
Nativist Interpretation
Noam Chomsky most famous language nativist-child does not need to learn what al human languages have in common(UG);only needs to learn what is unique to his or her specific language
principles(innate) and parameters(acquired quickly)
Language acquisitions device(LAD)
innate ability to acquire language
The Nativist Perspective in Review-we have not ruled out the nativist basis contention, which is that human beings are born with an innate capacity for language.
Brown Stages
were identified by Roger Brown 1925-1997 and described in his classic book
Morphology
in linguistics, morphology is the branch of grammar devoted to the study of the structure or forms of words(the study of word structure)
Syntax
study the rules governing the combination of words to form sentences
Morpheme
is a unit of meaning. Unhappiest-equals 3 morphemes
Left Brain Functions
uses logic, detailed oriented,facts rule,words and language, present and past, math and science, can comprehend, knowing,acknowledges, order/pattern perception,knows object name, reality based, forms strategies, practical, safe
Right brain functions
uses feeling, "big picture"oriented, imagination rules,symbols and images, present and future, philosophy and religion, can "get it" believes, appreciates, spatial perception, knows objects function, fantasy based, presents possibilities, impetuous, risk taking
The Source-Filter Theory
describes speech production as a two stage process involving the generation of a sound source, with its own spectral shape and spectral fine structure,which is then shaped or filtered by the resonant properties of the vocal tract.
Waveform
is an image tat represents an audio signal or recording.It shows the changes in amplitude over a certain amount of time. The amplitude of the signal is measured on the y-axis(vertically) while time is measured on the x-axis(horizontally)
Formant
refers to peaks in the harmonic spectrum of complex sound
spec tro gram
a graphic or photographic representation of a spectrum
phoneme
is the smallest structural unit that distinguishes meaning in a language. are not the physical segments themselves but are cognitive abstractions or categorizations of them
phones
refer to the instance of phonemes in the actual utterances-physical segment
anaphora
using a pronoun or similar word instead of repeating a word used earlier
emotional prosody
is the expression of feelings using prosodic elements of speech. Charles Darwin
Linguistic Prosody
refers to intonation and vocal stress in speech
Common resonance disorders
hypernasality, hyponasality and nasal emission
Friedreichs ataxia
is an inherited disease that causes progressive damage to the nervous system resulting in symptoms ranging from gait disturbance and speech problems to heart disease
Ataxia
is a symptom of coordination problems-clumsy or awkward movements and unsteadiness and occurs in many different diseases and condtions.
Myasthenia Gravis
is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of weakness of the skeletal voluntary muscles of the body. The name of myasthenia gravis which is Latin and Greek in origin, literally means "grave muscle weakness". Muscle weakness that increases during periods of activity and improves after periods of rest. Certain muscles such as those that control eye and eyelid movement, facial expression, chewing, talking, and swallowing are often, but not always involved in this disorder. muscles that control breathing and neck and limb movements may also be affected
Acoustic Reflex
is an involuntary muscle contraction that occurs in the middle ear of mannamls in response to high-intensity sound stimuli
olfactory 1
smell
optic 2
vision
oculomotor 3
eyelid and eyeball movement
trochlear 4
turns eye downward and laterally
trigeminal 5
chewing, face and mouth touch and pain
abducen 6
turns eye laterally
facial 7
facial expressions secretion of tears and saliva and taste
auditory 8
hearing equillibrium sensation
glossopharyngeal 9
taste/senses carotid blood pressure/
vagus 10
senses aortis blood pressure/slows heart rate/stimulates digestive organs/taste,motor intervention to the larynx and velum
spinal accessory 11
controls trapezius & sternocleidomastoid/controlls swallowing movements
hypoglossal 12
controls tongue movements
Speech Reception Threshold
is a basic component of an evaluation of hearing function. It is measured in decibles and corresponds to the intensity level at which spondaic words can be recognized approx 50% of the time
hispanic issues when speaking english
use multiple negation inappropriately
Flaccid Dysarthria
is most frequently associated with significant dysphagia
Chewing Technique
is used to reduce muscular tension in the laryngeal area
Facilitation process
is best described by exploitation of available repertoire and metalinguisteic activities-incorporating new materal into the total existing language system
The basic reason for using standardized or normative instruments for assessing language and speech function
a clients behavior is most usefully compared to what is normal for a person in that age range
The most reasonable standard to apply when judging whether a client has achieved generalization of a targeted skill
The client uses the targeted skill in the presence of stimulus conditions not present during the training process and in the absence of reinforcement
The most serious limitiation of employing imitation as an intervention strategy for children with a language impairment
it lacks communicative intention
Naturalistic Teaching
focuses on the successful production of utterances that are communicatively useful in context-establishing successful and useful communication
Conductive hearing loss
children with hx of otitis media are at risk of mild to moderate conductive hearing loss. They have difficulty perceiving and producing strident or high frequency consonants, such as siblilants.
Thermal Stimulation
helps trigger the swallow reflex
Goal for Layrngectomy patient
restoration of oral communication
Children dx with specific language impairments
are likely to exhibit the greatest deficits in production of sentences with appropriate inflectional morphology and syntax
A functional communication tx objective
client will use the phone to request info or assistance in 80% of the appropriate situations presented
Leading cause of neuroligical speech and language disorders in adults
CVA
5 yr old with mulitple speech path errors tx goal
delineate phonological processes in operation and address them through minimal contrast pairs
a correct response rate of 51 percent on a 2 choice picture pointing task would most likely indicate ...
a random pointing response
Stroboscopy
generally is the most efficient and effective instrumentation for viewing the vocal folds during phonation
A clinician who employs active listening
responds to both the content and the affect of a clients remarks
Why u dont use chronological age as a performance criterion for a child with Downs Syndrome
using chronological age would make the childs language disorders seem more pronounced(overidentify)
Athetosis-Cerebal Palsy
slow, arrhythmic, writhing and involuntary movements of the extremities
Apraxia of Speech
difficulty in the appropriate coordination of the motor movements required to produce well formed speech sounds.
Tx of Apraxia of Speech
auditory-visual stimulation,oral motor repetition,and phonetic placement
Independent Variable
manipulated or selected by the researcher to determine its effect on the dependent variable(ex. manipulating vocal loudness to see its effect on prosodic Fo and durational variables)
intermittent reinforcement
used when a behavior has already been acquired, a random ratio of tokens to correct responses creates an intermittent reinforcement schedule and is the most effective
Flaccid paralysis of the soft palate
referal for a construction of a palatal lift appliance is appropriate
Infant known to have a hearing loss
Parents are in the best position to provide consistent auditory stimulation and such stimulation is what the infant needs to develop awareness of sound
Naturalistic Contexts
everyday situations provide opportunities for the use of fuctional and meaningful linguistic forms
agent vs subject
whether something is an agent depends on semantics whereas whether something is a subject depends on syntax
Hearing loss in infants born with a cleft palate is usually related to what?
Eustachian tube dysfunction
word finding difficulties related to aphasia
tx to remediate these difficulties is appropriate
A single exposure to several hours to continous music with overall level of 100 db SPL will cause what
tinnitus and a temporary threshold shift in the high frequencies
Bilingual english spanish speech error
irregular verbs
linguistic approach
contrast alveoloar stops with velar stops in meaningful word pairs
For a test of expressive morphology and syntax for speakers of african american vernacular english, test item that would be considered LEAST biased against such speakers would be one requiring
agreement of personal pronouns with their antecedents in gender and number
Right Hemisphere traumatic brain injury
visuospatial disorgainzation,an inablitiy to initiate interactions,unilateral neglect,and lack of facial expression
In deciding wheter the child is developmentally non fluent or is stuttering, the SLP will determine
the nature and frequency of the childs repetitions
Interjudge reliability
is one whose results are replicable even if different people admininster the test
cricothyroid
control over the fundamental freq of the laryngeal tone
Posterior Cricoarytenoid
abducts the vocal folds
Lateral Cricoarytenoid
adducts the vocal folds
Hypoglossus
lowers the tongue
Sternocleidomasatoid
respiratory muscle
Cricothyroid
Muscle that has the greatest control over teh fundamental frequency of the laryngeal tone by lengthening or tensing the vocal folds
Manual depression of the larynx
will serve to lengthen the vocal folds, allowing them to vibrate at a lower frequency. ex effective in remediating a falsetto voice for an adult male with a severe bilateral hearing loss
Insufficient palatal closure
excessive nasality-speak while alternating opening and closing the nostrils
Ear Malformation
individuals diagnosed with having hemifacial microsomia are also most likely to have this
Developmental apraxia of speech
symptoms include-articulation characterised by groping, inconsistency, and errors of sound and syllable sequencing
Structured play to address short term goals
Toddlers and preschoolers respond better to games and play activities than structured exercises so use....
Hyperadduction of the vocal fold tx
have the client use light and gentle vocal fold contacts will help reduce tension and be effective
Consonant cluster reduction
is the most persistent of the normal developmental processes
Whispered speech
it is composed largely of aperiodic sounds
Syntactic Complexity
is determined by the number of transformational rules that are applied to a given sentence
Impaired attention and memory are symptoms
brain injury
Cognitive therapy for stuttering
focuses on changing faulty beliefs about self-control and the perceived benefits of stuttering
Wernickes Aphasia
include deficits related to the ability to recognize the adequacy of ones verbal production
Glottal fry is a symptom of
contact ulcers
Hoarse voice,hard glottal attacks,lowering of pitch
Vocal Nodules
Acute laryngitis
a person may lose the use of the voice and may even become aphonic during this episode
Ventricular Phonation
use of false vocal cords,a rought type of phonation when used with true vocal cords can reslut in diplophonia
spastic dysphonia
aphonic breaks due to sudden over adduction or underadduction of the vocal folds
Tx of aphonia
developement of phonation thru coughing or throat clearing
Flaccid dysarthria
child is likely to have chewing, eating and swallowing issues with this
Cleft palate can be caused by
genetic factors interacting with environmental factors
Anoxic encephalopathy
brain deprived from oxygen-memory issues
valleculae
are depressions that lie lateral to the median epiglottal folds
ABAB or ABA
shows changes when intervention is applied.Single subject design using ABAB or ABA design is the best method to determine whether the intervention has succeeded
Standardized test
reveal how well a client performs compared to a specific population
a SOAP, subjective objective assessment plan
explains a desired goal and specific outcomes in the overall effects of intervention
Auditory training
interpretation of auditory input and would thus teach a client to discriminate speech sounds
repeated episodes of otitis media with intermittent hearing loss
effects overall language development
following medialization throplasty
need to produce hard glottal attack
Browns morphemes are acquired
by children in an order that is determined by their semantic and syntactic complexity
aphonia
loss of voice, inability to speak
dysphonia
phonation disorder/dysphonic voice can be hoarse or weak, or excessively breathy, harsh, or rough, but some kind of phonation is still possible/
Dysarthria
is a motor speech disorder resulting from neurological injury, characterized by poor articulation
Dysarthric speech
due to some disorder in the nervous system, which in turn hinders control over, for example, the tongue, throat, lips or lungs. Swallowing problems (dysphagia) are often present.