Chapter 9

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Terms in this set (...)

Sometimes flashbulb seems well remembered
■ Other times less so
■ Why?
Discussion with other people can act as rehearsal
■ People will alter their accounts to improve conversation or pick up new information from others' accounts
● Alter actual memory for event
● Co-witness contamination
Traumatic memories: Physiological arousal and stress at time of event increase consolidation
● Increased consolidation can lead to better recall
Common causes of memory loss during trauma
Head injuries, sleep deprivation, drugs or alcohol
Can traumatic memories be lost and then recovered?
● Unlikely
● Lost memories may be due to ordinary retrieval failure
■ Some of the memories reported as recovered may actually be false memories
● Leading questions and expectations in therapy and hypnosis can promote false memory
Lifespan retrieval curve
● Birth to 3-4
○ Childhood amnesia ○ Why though?
● 7 and 9 year olds interviewed about events that occurs with mothers at age of 3
○ 7 year olds recall 60% of events
○ 9 year olds recall 36-38% of events
● Period of age 10-30 well remembered
○ Reminiscence bump
○ Accuracy for these events remain relatively constant independent of age
childhood amnesia
birth to 3/4
60%
of 7 year olds recall events that occurs with mothers at age of 3
36-38%
of 9 year olds recall events that occurs with mothers at age of 3
Reminiscence bump
● Period of age 10-30 well remembered
○ Accuracy for these events remain relatively constant independent of age
General knowledge about objects and concepts help us to interpret the world around us
■ When lisa was on her way back from the store with the balloon, she fell and the balloon floated away
■ Definitions: What is a Balloon?
■ How do you know what a balloon is?
● knowledge= definition and criteria
● Always possible to find particular exceptions to a rule
■ Simple concepts do not have all inclusive definitions
...
The prototype approach ■ Eleanor rosch (1973)
● Each category organized by prototype
● Item that is most typical and representative of category
● Prototype of a bird contains all things associated with an object being bird like
Using the prototype approach
Decide whether an item belongs to a category
graded membership
Objects closer to prototype are better members of category than objects further from prototype
■ Some dogs are "doggier" than other dogs
■ Category membership is a spectrum
● Not a yes or no situation
Prototypes are supplied as examples of a category
■ First thing that comes to mind
Mervis and Colleagues (1976)
■ Examples of categories given
Members of categories share family resemblance
■ No defining feature in every family member
■ But characteristic features across family members
Rosch and Mervis (1975)
■ Prototypicality judgements about members of several categories
■ List attributes possessed by each item
■ Most prototypicality item shared largest number of attributes with other items in categories
Typicality Effects
○ Sentence verification task ○ True or false?
■ Robins are birds
■ Penguins are birds
Levels of categorization
■ Superordinate level categories
● Furniture, animals, tools
■ Basic level categories
● Chair, dog, screwdriver
■ Subordinate level categories
● Desk chair, collie, phillips head screwdriver
Rosch and Colleagues
■ Participants looked at pictures and identified objects
■ People preferred basic-level names
■ When presented with superordinate or subordinate names
● Frequently remember basic level version during recall
■ Basic level names are more likely to produce the semantic priming effect
● same/different comparisons with different priming words
● Priming with basic level names is helpful
○ Faster if primed with "apple"
● Priming with superordinate names is not helpful
Prototypes
Provide an economical summary of category
Exemplars
■ Provide information about category variability
■ Less economical
Exemplar approach
■ Does not require abstraction
■ Reading case studies about patients with depression
● Don't necessarily need to create prototype of what a patient with depression looks like
■ Prototypes approach may force you to discard useful, specific data about individual cases
Problems with exemplar approach
may be more suitable for categories with relatively few members - Semantic memory storage concerns
Prototype approach may be more suitable for
categories with numerous members
Conceptual knowledge
mixture of exemplar and prototype
■ Exemplars more useful in categories with small number of members
Early learning often involves
exemplars
experience
involves averaging exemplars to get prototypes
Difficulties with Categorizing Via Resemblance
○ Definitions not available for most concepts
■ Judgement by prototypes and exemplars eliminates need for definition ○ How is category membership judged?
■ Typicality
● Degree to which a particular object, situation or event is typical to the category
○ Atypical features don't necessarily exclude category members
■ A lemon painted with red and white stripes injected with sugar to make it sweet and then run over with a truck is still a lemon
○ Objects that have all typical features can be rejected
■ A perfect counterfeit bill
Difficulties with categorizing Via Resemblance
Definitions not available for most concepts
■ Judgement by prototypes and exemplars eliminates need for definition ○ How do we judge category membership?
■ Typicality - Degree to which a particular object, situation or event is typical for category
Differences Between Typicality and Categorization
○ Atypical features don't necessarily exclude category members
○ Keil
■ Asked children questions about feature objects
■ A skunk cannot be turned into a raccoon
■ A toaster can be turned into a coffeepot
○ Natural items have essential features that cannot be changed
○ Deep and essential properties
■ Lemon still has lemon DNA
■ Seeds would still grow new lemons
○ Deep and essential properties sometimes define a category
Complexity of Similarity
○ How do you think about categories when not guided by typicality? ■ Focus on essential attributes ■ What is essential?
○ Protype use depends on judgements of resemblance ■ How do you decide resemblance?
● Number of shared properties?
○ Most objects share more properties than they do not share
● Which are the essential features
○ Where does of the definition of an essential feature come from?
■ Form beliefs about category
Categorization enables us to
■ Apply general knowledge to new cases
● Even though i've never met this dog before, I can assume this dog will bark
■ Draw broad conclusions from prior experiences
● Experiences with this dog can be applied to other dogs

Inferences Based on Theories
Spontaneous generalization
■ Drawing a conclusion about a general category
■ Do people working in independent coffee shops tend to have lots of visible tattoos?
○ Default assignment
■ Drawing a conclusion about a specific member of a category
■ Amelia works in an independent coffee shop? Does she have tattoos?
Inferences Based on Theories
Artifacts
■ Man made objects
■ can be constructed in many different ways
○ Natural Kinds
■ Things from nature
■ Have essential properties
■ Properties relatively stable in comparison to artifacts
■ Items in category more similar to one another
fMRI studies
Support idea of natural kinds and artifacts being essentially different
■ Chao et. al (2002)
Propositional Networks
Propositions
■ Smallest unit of knowledge that can be either true or false
● Today it is sunny outside
● Sarah is hungry
● Mai is- not a proposition
■ Nodes can represent concepts
■ Links between nodes can form more complex concepts
Propositions
Smallest unit of knowledge that can be either true or false
● Today it is sunny outside
● Sarah is hungry
● Mai is- not a proposition
■ Nodes can represent concepts
■ Links between nodes can form more complex concepts
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