Terms in this set (70)
is a branch of science that deals with the
scientific study of the soil.
the study of the capacity of the soil to
supply nutrient elements to plants.
Lower case letters
are used as suffixes to indicate specific characteristics;
the study of the physical nature of the soil,
its characteristics, properties, and/or reactions which are
caused by physical forces.
the study of the chemical properties of
the soil, the original rocks and minerals that constitute
the parent materials from which soils come from, their
chemical nature and reactions, and the description of the
chemical processes that transform nutrient elements in
the soil and in the soil solution.
the study of the microorganisms
living in the soil.
soil conservation and management
the study of how
to protect the soil from degradation.
soil survey and classification
the study of the physical,
chemical, and biological characteristics of the soil, its
profile and its horizons, their origin, formation, and
development and taxonomic classification.
is the study of the patterns of utilization and/or
allocation of lands for general or specific purposes.
studies the soil as they occur in
nature with main interest on the description or
characterization and differentiation of the properties
of the soil with little emphasis on its practical use.
is the study of soils with the
main goal of understanding the properties of the soil
in relation its practical use
l is the thin portion of the
Earth's crust which is a mixture of
organic and inorganic materials
formed from the continuous
weathering of rocks and minerals.
is a medium for plant growth that supplies
essential nutrients, water, and air to plants and
needed for plant and animal respiration.
needed for plant root respiration
essential for photosynthesis
is the foundation on which roads, bridges,
buildings, and other engineering structures are built.
include dead residues of plants, animals,
are the weathered rocks, minerals, and
Soils with mineral particles of 45% or more
Soils with organic matter content of 18%
are organic soils composed of slightly
decomposed plant and animal residues the
composition of which is still recognizable.
are organic soils with 20-50% OM that are
well decomposed and the original materials cannot be
is a general term for organic soils under the
Soil Order Histosols.
is the evolution of the soil from its parent
material (Brady, 2009). Formation of soils is largely
dictated by nature and involves various processes
is the process by which soils are
formed from the weathering of rocks and minerals.
Weathering is the main agent of soil formation.
is the mode of origin of the soil with
special reference to the processes or soil-forming
factors responsible for the development of the solum
(true soil) from the unconsolidated parent material
Mineral horizons that formed at the
surface or below an O horizon that exhibit obliteration
of all or much of the original rock structure and
Mineral horizons in which the main
feature is loss of silicate clay, iron, aluminum, or some
combination of these, leaving a concentration of sand
and silt particles of quartz or other resistant materials.
Soils that have originated from or developed from
rocks or unconsolidated materials
Horizons that formed below an A, E, or O horizon
and are dominated by obliteration of all or much of the original
rock structure and show one or more of the following:
Horizons or layers, excluding hard bedrock,
that are little affected by pedogenic processes and lack
properties of O, A, E, or B horizons. The material of C
horizons may be either like or unlike that from which
the solum presumably formed. The C horizon may
have been modified even if there is no evidence of
Organic or bog
Soils that are formed from plant and animal residues
is a physico-chemical and biological
process acting upon rocks and their component
minerals causing physical and chemical
transformations to form the soil.
Hard bedrock including granite, basalt,
quartzite and indurated limestone or sandstone that is
sufficiently coherent to make hand digging
used to designate master horizons;
water and temperature
main agents of weathering.
are used both as suffixes to indicate vertical
subdivisions within a horizon or prefixes to indicate discontinuities.
association of water molecules or of hydroxyl groups with
minerals, often without actual decomposition or modification of the mineral
re the huge consolidated or unconsolidated
materials that essentially form the Earth's solid crust.
Replacement of the basic ions by the hydrogen, with
consequent collapse and disintegration of the structure.
removal/addition of one or more electrons from an
ion or an atom to another.
are rocks formed from the cooling
and solidification of volcanic magma and have not
been changed appreciably since its formation.
is the driving force that is responsible for the
weathering of rocks and minerals to form the soil.
are rocks that have been
substantially altered from its previous composition
and condition by the action of heat and pressure
resulting to partial melting or metamorphism.
these are the rocks, minerals and organic
residues from which the soil is developed through weathering
or the unconsolidated and more or less chemically weathered
mineral or organic matter from which the solum of soils is
developed by pedogenic processes.
are rocks that are formed by
transport, deposition, and compaction.
refers to the bedrock or rocks where the soil developed
are elements or chemical compounds that are
crystalline in nature and has been formed as a result of geologic
loose materials like sand, silt, and clay and/or organic
residues that were transported and deposited and formed
minerals that have not been
altered chemically since deposition and
crystallization from molten lava.
minerals resulting from the
decomposition of a primary mineral or from the
re-precipitation of the products of decomposition
of a primary mineral.
are the huge consolidated or unconsolidated materials
that essentially form the Earth's solid crust. Rocks are the
parent materials from which soils are developed by
refers to elevation and
steepness of the land or the landscape position and
the slopes it has.
refers to soil organisms that play
a vital role in the degradation or decomposition of
organic matter. The most common organisms found
in the soil are:
is the vertical cross-section
of the soil from the surface through all
is a layer of soil differing in
properties and characteristics from
adjacent layers below or above it. Each
soil is characterized by a given sequence
of horizons in its profile.
Organic horizons that form above the
mineral soil or layers dominated by organic material
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