WHAP Review 1
Terms in this set (50)
The sultan required Christian boys from conquered territories, educated them, converted them to Islam, trained them as soldiers or bureaucrats. Some families even bribed officials to let their children be taken because it was an avenue to better life.
It was a system used in the Ottoman Empire whereby subjects were divided into religious communities, with each "nation" enjoying autonomous self-government under its religious leaders. But obedience to the sultan and the jizya were required.
It meant "restructuring" and it was the reforms in the nineteenth-century by Ottoman sultans which intended to move civil law away from the control of religious elites and make the military and the bureaucracy more efficient.
It was a late nineteenth century movement in which the Chinese modernized their army and encouraged Western investment in factories and railways. It was an attempt to compete with the West but it was half-heartedly embraced.
The Crimean War (1853-1856)
It was a conflict between Russia and the Ottoman Empires fought primarily in this region. In order to prevent Russian expansion, Britain and France sent troops to support the Ottomans. The British and French did not want to upset the balance of power.
He reigned in the mid-nineteenth century in Russia and advocated many reforms, including the emancipation of the serfs in 1861. After Russia's failure in the Crimean War, he realized that Russia had to modernize to compete with the West. He was assassinated.
The Balfour Declaration (1917)
It was a document issued by the British that supported the creation of a Jewish state as long as the rights of the Palestinians were protected. It was written during World War I to a leading figure of the Jewish community in Britain. It promised the creation of a Jewish homeland.
It was a movement founded in the 1890s to promote the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine. It was Jewish nationalism. It advocated the creation of a Jewish state. Its leaders felt that due to Anti-Semitism, Jews were not safe in Europe. They needed a homeland.
Theodore Herzl (1860-1904)
He was an Austrian journalist and leading proponent of the Zionist movement, a movement that urged the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine. After witnessing the Dreyfus Trial in France, he experienced the devastating effects of Anti-Semitism and believed that only a Jewish homeland would protect Jews.
The Meiji Restoration
In 1868, the Japanese state sponsored industrialization and westernization as well as eliminated the Tokugawa Shogunate. Power was handed over to the Japanese Emperor who had previously existed as spiritual and symbolic figure. In reality, an oligarchy ruled as feudalism was abolished and Japan began to modernize.
He was the Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution as well as the first leader of the USSR (1870-1924). He believed in the vanguard of the proletariat and issued the New Economic Policy.
The Vanguard of the Proletariat
It as the idea that an elite group of dedicated communists would have to carry out and lead the revolution because of the false consciousness of the workers that would not let them fully see their oppression and be satisfied with mere wage increases. It was the realization that historical conditions would not automatically lead to capitalism's demise. An elite group of revolutionaries was needed to lead a revolution.
The Plan of Ayala
It was a document drafted by revolutionary leader, Emiliano Zapata, during the Mexican Revolution. It was a policy of land reform. It called for the redistribution of land from wealthy elites to indigenous communities. Zapata had lead with the words "Tierra y Libertad" or "Land and Freedom."
He was Mustafa Kemal and he was the leader of the Turkish republic formed in 1923. He reformed the Turkish nation using Western models. The fez was abolished; a Latin script replaced Arabic, modernization became, secular law codes were used and Sufi orders were disbanded.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
He was an Indian Muslim politician who founded the state of Pakistan. A lawyer by training, he joined the All-India Muslim League in 1913. As leader of the League from the 1920s on, he negotiated with the British and the Indian National Congress for Muslim political rights. He feared that a Muslim minority in India would always be persecuted.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
He was the preeminent leader of the Indian independence movement in British-ruled India. As a leading figure in the Indian National Congress, he called for an end to British imperialism through nonviolence. He called for a boycott of British cloth and the illegal making of salt (the Salt March). He was assassinated by a Hindu extremist.
It was formerly East Pakistan and in the early 1970s, it engaged in a separatist movement that led to the creation of a new nation. It has frequently experienced flooding and economic difficulties.
The Four Modernizations
It was Deng Xiaoping's plan to change China after the disaster of Cultural Revolution. It included Improvements in agriculture, science/technology, defense and industry. It introduced elements of the free market into the Chinese economy.
The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)
It was a mass campaign initiated by Mao Zedong to reshape citizens' thinking in line with Mao's vision of socialism. It included major goals such as purging the party of "capitalist roaders" and "class enemies" as well as ridding the country of old culture, habits, ideas, and customs.
New Economic Policy (NEP)
It was Lenin's 1921 policy to re-establish limited economic freedom in an attempt to rebuild agriculture and industry in the face of economic disintegration. The Civil War had hit Russia hard and by establishing some free market incentives, Lenin hoped to revive the economy.
It was a man-made famine, a genocide in which the Soviet Union starved the people of Ukraine, killing millions. It was created by Josef Stalin in response to the Kulaks' anger over collectivization. In order to punish the Kulaks, the entire region was punished as grain was removed from the Ukraine ("the breadbasket" of the Soviet Union) and sent elsewhere.
He was the leader of the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia. He terrorized the people of Cambodia from 1975 to 1979. He wanted to return the country to the Year Zero and forced all people to evacuate the cities. In order to create a totally egalitarian society, everyone had to farm in the countryside as peasants.
The Red Guards
It was the radical youth of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in China and it started in 1966. Members often wore red armbands and carried Mao's Little Red Book. They punished counterrevolutionaries or "capitalist roaders" without trial and without evidence. They removed Mao's enemies.
Collectivization of Agriculture
As an extension of his Five Year Plan (initiated in 1928), Stalin pursued a policy of destroying the culture of the peasant village and replacing it with one organized around huge state-owned farms. The peasants resisted and were killed, starved, or driven into Siberia in numbers that can only be estimated but which may have been as high as eight million. Other communists followed. It is the organization of state farms as opposed to individual peasant farms and it is not productive.
The Glorious Revolution (1688)
It was a bloodless coup in 1688 in England when James II (a Catholic) gave up the throne and his daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange (of the Netherlands) - both Protestants - replaced James II to reign jointly. No Catholic monarch has reigned in England since. It was very important because it further limited the power of the king in England. Parliament was supreme. The king had to obey Parliament.
The Act of Supremacy (1534)
It stated that the King was the only supreme head of the Church of England. The king could control doctrine, appointments, and discipline. It was issued because Henry VIII wanted an annulment, a cancelation of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon, but the Pope refused. Catherine had powerful parents - King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain.
He was the Soviet leader during the Cuban Missile Crisis. He was also famous for denouncing Stalin and allowed criticism of Stalin in Russia. Ultimately, he did remove nuclear missiles from Cuba but he took a bit of time to remove them causing anxiety in the world.
It was a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society. Gorbachev understood that without reforms, the economy would continue to deteriorate. He issued free market reforms.
It was a policy of Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, which called for more openness with the nations of West and a relaxing of restraints on Soviet citizenry. It allowed for greater freedom of speech and press in the Soviet Union.
The May Fourth Movement (1919)
It was an anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement growing out of student participants in Beijing on 4 May 1919, protesting against the Chinese government's weak response to the Treaty of Versailles, especially allowing Japan to receive territories in Shandong which had been surrendered by Germany after the Siege of Tsingtao. It was a protest against the nationalist government for allowing Germany's sphere of influence to be given to Japan.
He was the leader of nonviolent protests for freedom on the Gold Coast. When independence was gained, he became the first prime minister of Ghana. He developed economic projects, but was criticized for spending too much time on Pan-African efforts, and neglecting his own countries' issues.
It was a policy or racial segregation involving political and economic and legal discrimination against non-whites in South Africa. It created Bantustans or reservations for Black South Africans, required Black South Africans to carry passbooks, and classified South Africans according to race.
The Six Day War (1967)
It was a military conflict between Israel and its Arab neighbors, including Syria, Egypt, and Jordan. The war ended with an Israeli victory and territorial expansion into the Sinai Peninsula, the Golan Heights, the Gaza Strip, and the West Bank. The 1967 war was a humiliation for several Arab states, and the territorial disputes it created formed the basis for continued conflict in the region.
It was an uprising by Palestinian Arabs (in both the Gaza Strip and the West Bank) against Israel in the late 1980s and again in 2000. It demanded the creation of a Palestinian state.
He was the founder of a conservative form of Sunni Islam. He was an 18th-century scholar from what is today known as Saudi Arabia, who advocated a return to the practices of the first three generations of Islamic history. He advocated a return to Shari'a or Islamic law and a more conservative society.
Alexander III (1881-1894)
He was a politically reactionary czar who promoted economic modernization of Russia. He began state-sponsored modernization of Russia but it was not enough. Russia still lagged behind its Western neighbors by the First World War.
The Mandate System
It was the allocation of former German colonies and Ottoman possessions to the victorious powers after World War I. The territories were to be administered under League of Nations supervision. They were temporary colonies. The Turks resisted and formed the modern nation of Turkey but other lands in the Middle East were part of it.
Boxer Rebellion (1900)
In an effort to expel foreign influence from their country, a secret society revolted against all foreigners in their midst. In the process of laying siege to foreign legations in Beijing, hundreds of missionaries and foreign diplomats were murdered. Several nations including the United States sent military forces to quell the rebellion.
The Long March (1934-1935)
It was a 6,000-mile flight of Chinese Communists from southeastern to northwestern China. The Communists, led by Mao Zedong, were pursued by the Chinese army under orders from Chiang Kai-shek. The four thousand survivors of the march formed the nucleus of a revived Communist movement that defeated the Guomindang after World War II.
The Guomindang (GMD)
It was the political party founded in 1911 by Sun Yat-sen (Sun Yixian). It was also known as the Nationalist Party or the Kuomintang. It was eventually headed by Chiang Kai-shek or Jiang Jieshi and he expelled the Communists from the Party.
It was an organization of countries formed to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum. It was an international oil cartel originally formed in 1960. It sought to control the supply and therefore the price of oil. It stands for Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.
It is a trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico that encourages free trade between these North American countries. Like the European Union, it eliminates tariffs between member nations and creates a free trade zone. It is a regional trading bloc.
It is the theory and practice of Marxism-Leninism developed in China which states that a continuous revolution is necessary if the leaders of a communist state are to keep in touch with the people. It also brings revolution to agrarian peasants and posits that a Marxist revolution can occur in an agrarian nation.
Mexican Constitution of 1917
It promised land reform, limited foreign ownership of key resources, guaranteed the rights of workers, and placed restrictions on clerical education. It also marked formal end of Mexican Revolution. Eventually, oil was nationalized by the Mexican government. The resources of the land belong to the people of the land.
Five Year Plans
Essentially, they were Stalin's ideas for a rapid increase of industrial production in the Soviet Union. Goals were established to rapidly industrialize the Soviet Union. Through industrialization, the USSR could compete with the West.
It was an agreement between Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 in which the two nations promised not to fight each other and to divide up land in Eastern Europe (specifically Poland). It was a non-aggression pact. The Germans did not want to fight another two-front war and the Soviets needed time to industrialize.
D-Day (June 6, 1944)
It was led by Eisenhower with over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history). It stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. It was the turning point of World War II. It was also called "Operation Overland" and was the greatest amphibious invasion in history. It opened a second front in the war.
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
This Shi'ite philosopher and cleric led the overthrow of the Shah of Iran in 1979 and created an Islamic republic. He implemented Shari'a or Islamic law and created an Islamic theocracy in Iran.
Kim Sung II
He was the leader of North Korea from its establishment in 1948 until his death in 1994. He held the posts of Premier from 1948 to 1972 and President from 1972 to 1994. The Korean War (1950 - 1953) occurred during his reign. In this war, North Korea invaded South Korea but a United Nations effort headed by the USA returned the Koreas to their original line of demarcation.
The African National Congress (ANC)
It was the main organization that opposed apartheid and pushed for majority rule in South Africa. It was later a political party. John Dube founded it but Nelson Mandela was a popular figure in the movement.
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