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AP World History Chapter 9: Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe

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icons
images of religious figures that became objects of veneration within Christianity of the Byzantine Empire; particularly prevalent in Eastern monasticism
Vladimir I
Ruler of Russian kingdom of Kiev from 980 to 1050; converted kingdom to Christianity
Greek Fire
Byzantine weapon consisting of mixture of chemicals that ignited when exposed to water; utilized to drive back the Arab fleets that attacked Constantinople
Kiev
Trade city in southern Russia established by Scandinavian traders in 9th century; became focal point for kingdom of Russia that flourished to 12th century
Hagia Sophia
New church constructed in Constantinople during reign of Justinian
iconoclasm
Religious controversy within the Byzantine Empire in the 8th century; emperor attempted to suppress veneration of icons; literary 'breaking of images'; after long struggle, icon veneration was restored
Rurik
legendary Scandinavian, regarded as founder of the first kingdom of Russia based in Kiev in 855 c.e
Tatars
Mongols; captured Russian cities and largely destroyed Kievan state in 1236; left Russian Orthodoxy and aristocracy intact
Belisarius
ONe of Justinian's most important military commanders during period of reconquest of western Europe; commanded in north Africa and Italy
boyars
Russian aristocrats; possessed less political power than did their counterparts in western Europe
Cyril
Along with Methodius, missionary sent by Byzantine government to eastern Europe and the Balkans; converted southern Russia and Balkans to Orthodox Christianity; responsible for creation of written script fr Slavic known as Cyrillic
Methodius
Along with Cyril, missionary sent by Byzantine government to eastern Europe and the Balkans; converted southern Russia and Balkans to Orthodox Christianity; responsible for creation of written script fr Slavic known as Cyrillic
Yaroslav
Last of great Kievan monarchs; issued legal codification based on formal codes developed in Byzantium
Russian Orthodoxy
Russian form of Christianity imported from Byzantine Empire and combined with local religion; king characteristically controlled major appointments
Bulgaria
Slavic kingdom established in northern portions of Balkan peninsula; constant sourve of pressure on Byzantine Empire; defeated by Emperor Basil II in 1014