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exam review 4 patho

Terms in this set (109)


The child will experience cyanosis and hypoxia. This type of shunt decreases flow through the pulmonary system, causing less than normal oxygen delivery to the tissues and resultant cyanosis. It will not cause a high-pitched cry. It will not cause leg pain; leg pain occurs in coarctation of the aorta. Epistaxis is associated with coarctation of the aorta.

A newborn is severely cyanotic. An echocardiogram reveals transposition of the great arteries. What is the characteristic defect associated with this condition?

a. The pulmonary artery leaving the right ventricle

b. The aorta leaving the right ventricle

c. Ventricular septal defect (VSD)

d. Atrial septal defect (ASD)

In transposition of the great arteries, the pulmonary artery leaves the left ventricle and the aorta exits from the right ventricle. The pulmonary artery normally leaves the right ventricle. Neither VSD nor ASD is associated with transposition of the great arteries.

When the pediatrician cardiologist discusses total anomalous pulmonary venous connection, which of the following statements BEST describes this condition?

a. The foramen ovale closes after birth.

b. Pulmonary venous return is introduced into the right atrium.

c. Pulmonary venous return is introduced into the left atrium.

d. The foramen ovale does not close.

The pulmonary venous return is connected to the right side of the circulation, rather than to the left atrium. It does not include closure of the foramen ovale after birth.

A 1-month-old infant was diagnosed with truncus arteriosus (TA) with a ventricular septal defect. This condition results in:

a. hypertrophy of the aorta and major arteries.

b. transposition of the aorta and the pulmonary trunk.

c. the aorta returning blood to the right atrium.

d. blood from both ventricles mixing in a common vessel.

TA is failure of normal separation and division of the embryonic outflow track into a pulmonary artery and an aorta, resulting in a single vessel that exits the heart. It does not involve hypertrophy of the aorta. It does not involve transposition of the aorta. It does not involve the aorta returning blood to the right atrium.

A 5-year-old female is found to have hypertension during three separate visits to her primary care provider. The nurse would expect tests to suggest that the hypertension is secondary to:

a. renal disease.

b. brain tumor.

c. hypocalcemia.

d. hyponatremia.

Hypertension in a 5-year-old is related to renal disease. Secondary hypertension in a 5-year-old is not usually related to a brain tumor, hypocalcemia, or hyponatremia.

A 1-year-old female with a ventricular septal defect is experiencing left-sided heart failure. Which symptom will most likely occur?

a. Failure to thrive

b. Increased urinary output

c. Jaundice

d. Flat neck veins

Left heart failure in infants is manifested as poor feeding and sucking, often leading to failure to thrive. None of the other symptoms is associated with left-sided failure.

A 3-year-old male is diagnosed with Kawasaki disease. What is the most likely cause of Kawasaki disease?

a. A genetic defect causing left heart failure

b. Autoimmune injury to the lymphatic vessels

c. Infectious pericarditis

d. Inflammation of the small capillaries, arteries, and veins

Kawasaki disease is related to inflammation of small capillaries. Kawasaki disease is not a result of a genetic defect, an autoimmune disease, or infectious pericarditis.